The information in many of the tables in this chapter can be found in the Economic Report of the President, which appears annually. Using a recent issue of the report at your library or on the Internet, answer the following questions and provide some numbers to support your answers. (Hint: The website of the Government Printing Office is http://www.gpo.gov.)a.Figure 1 shows that government revenue as a per-centage of total income has increased over time. Is this increase primarily attributable to changes in federal government revenue or in state and local government revenue?b.Looking at the combined revenue of the federal government and state and local governments, how has the composition of total revenue changed over time? Are personal income taxes more or less important? Social insurance taxes? Corporate profits taxes?c.Looking at the combined expenditures of the federal government and state and local governments, how have the relative shares of transfer payments and purchases of goods and services changed over time?
Russian 100 Notes: Week of 4/4/16 ● After the fall of communism... Foreign ice cream Vanilla is/was the most popular flavor Hot dogs WITH buns (they had never eaten them with buns prior) New movie theatres with nice seats and food (popcorn for example) Health clubs (gyms/fitness) Aerobics was the fitness craze with women. Women especially, wanted to lose weight. Along with the aerobics, women of all ages went on all kinds of diets. Sweat pants, sweatshirts, jogging shoes, etc… Country club (Just one in Moscow) Jewelry A Russian man, giving his fiance a wedding ring was not the norm. Women wear their wedding bands, men typically do not. Wedding bands are worn on the right hand, not the left. Amber was the thing to buy in terms of jewelry. In the 90’s, costume jewelry came in from China and became very popular. Cosmetics What does a Russian woman want to own more than anything Western brand cosmetics*** Fashion Women are incredibly invested in fashion. They dress in a very sexy way, especially the younger women. The men don’t like to dress up much, except maybe on their wedding day. A good businessman would buy Italian clothes (Italian leather shoes, belts, briefcases, suits, etc..) Perfume (especially french) Sunglasses Reading glasses everyone could get them but they all had the same frames. Pets Pets were not a big part of Russian life, there wasn’t usually room in the Small apartments for any animal aside from a cat. Cats were often used for pest control. In the new Russia, big dogs were the fad. If your neighbor had a dog, you got abigger dog. Artificial flowers and silk Foreign cars Stolen from Germany (Mercedes and BMW) Stuffed animals/Barbie dolls Especially with young women Movies Mostly American movies (you could hardly find a Russian movie) They were all dubbed These movies were very expensive (upwards of $20, $30, $40) Nothing is edited on TV or in movies Music videos/MTV American music was everywhere Eventually, by the late 90’s, Yeltsin had 50/50 Russian/US music on the radio Omens They believe in magnetic forces The are very superstitious They believe in palm reading, zodiacs, fortune tellers, etc… Soap operas Favorite TV shows*** American cop shows Action films Cartoons (among all age groups)*** Books/Literature**** They wanted to read everything in translation No one was writing anything of their own Translations were usually very poor Detective stories and mysteries were the most popular*** Magazines (most popular: Cosmopolitan*) Anything western Pornography/Erotica There was nothing like this, prior Billboards, TV advertisements, sex was everywhere Strippers were everywhere (hotels, bars, etc…) American style bars and restaurants Laundry detergent Deodorant They had never had access to it prior Foreign toothpaste Russian toothpaste was horrible Teeth quality was very poor Real shampoo/hygiene products Including hair dye for the women Malls Was very expensive Cell phones Russians wore their cellphones around their necks Roller blading/tattooing/piercings/dog fighting Drive in movie theatres Built one in Moscow, hardly anyone came, so that was the end of it Motor Cycle Clubs Most famous one was called Night Wolves Bowling alleys Night Clubs/Dance Clubs Casinos These were all closed and made ‘underground’ Mafia came in Poker became a sport Gambling became an addiction Only four areas of the country allows gambling but they are too far away for Most to go to ● Russians finally begin writing their own literature again, making their own movies, removing english words/phrases from their language (under Putin) listening to Russian music, etc… ● If they can afford it, politics aside, young people still prefer to buy something made in the United States*** for them, that is quality and it gives them some kind of status among their friends. ● Favorite Sports… Hockey Socker ● Violence in sports (especially hockey) led many athletes to travel abroad to out of fear of being murdered ● There was so little crime under communism, that it was almost unheard of ● High crime rate started after the fall of communism ● Russian heroin addicts have a 4 year life expectancy after they become hooked ● Prostitutes in Russia have an even shorter life expectancy ● In 1998, it was put into effect, that police could stop and search people on the street, looking for drugs usually. ● Afghanistan produces the majority of the world’s heroin ● Among the young, in Russia, there is no stigma around doing drugs ● Roughly 100,000 die in Russia, annually due to drugs ● Currently, Russia is the #1 consumer of heroin, in the world ● Exotic animals have become a new fad in Russia, people owning eagles and hawks for example. Mafia members might keep alligators, siberian tigers (becoming extinct), squirrels, etc… ● As a last resort for heroin addicts, there was a brain institute where neurosurgeons would perform a three hour surgery to attempt to neutralize the part of the brain that controls addiction. This institute reported that 70% of patients were successfully cured without any effects to their personality. By 2001, the government banned these surgeries. ● Krokodil Russian for crocodile, is one of the most dangerous drugs in the world. A synthetic heroin, extremely addictive and dangerous. A morphine derivative Cheap Homemade Extremely lethal Primary ingredient is Codine Much higher dosage for the same high Causes your skin to scale up, turn black, and fall off, to the bone, hence the name crocodile (many/most developed gangrene) Users typically die within a year of use, the most is 23 years ● Russian government issued a statement last year that they will never legalize Marijuana, they see it as a gateway to heroin. ● After the fall of communism, the Russian youth turn to either drugs or religion*** they feel a spiritual emptiness. ● Religion… freedom of religion by the late 80’s (strong revival in many religions: Islam, Christianity, Orthodox, etc). Many Christians would wear crosses around their necks, they needed a cross to be baptised. The Russian Orthodox cross is slightly different from the traditional cross, with bars above and below the traditional cross. Young people decorate their homes with religious icons, Russians especially include a Lot of color ● ***There are more Russians who profess to being religious than those who do not. ● 75% of Americans (December 2015) say they are Christians, this number continues to drop. ● ***One of the major trends among young people during the Gorbachev era, was an interest in prerevolutionary Russia Russia of the Czars, before Communism Especially the last Czar, and his family As part of that interest, was the restoration of churches ● All churches were restored, the people involved in these restorations were the young ● ***With the revival of religion, all of these religious groups from all over the world, went to Russia, trying to convert the Russians to a religion. ● ***New law in religion cracked down, there are now only 4 officially recognized religions today... Russian Orthodox Judaism Islam Buddhism ● ***Young people to this day (started after the fall of Communism and intensified during the 90s) when asked, who do you trust the most The number one answer is the Orthodox Church (doesn’t necessarily mean that they attend Church).