Both H2 and He contain two 1s electrons. Which species is larger? Explain your choice.
Monday, March 14, 2016 Recap Theories of gestures and relation to communication Gestures and infancy: pre-language o Diectic (indexical) o Iconic o Symbolic Gesturing and Leaning a Language Practice ideas, make mistakes produces a learning environment Amount of variation in gesturing at 14 months mild indicator at vocabulary breadth at 42 months o Now always, however Generally: parents who gesture more have children who gesture more, who in turn tend to have larger vocabularies later in life. Gesturing and Language Creation Sign language resembles spoken language because it has segmented, combinatorial forms (their view of language) However, sign languages do not entirely depend on syntax of spoken language o American vs. British Sign Language Syntax, morphology, cultural idiosyncrasies o Contrary to popular opinion, SL largely not iconic in its relationalities. Emergent Sign Systems 90% of deaf children born to hearing parents who don’t know a sign language Homesigns: signs constructed more ad hoc and contextually that, over time, begin to form its own syntax and morphology. Emergent Sign Systems: NSL In the late 1970’s and early 80’s deaf Nicaraguans began to organize independent outreach programs No one had sign language: each had their own colloquial system of gestures/signs Nicaraguan Sign Language grew out of a heterogeneous and dispersed group of people to form a new and emerging speech community. o Homesigns carried over to produce a completely new Sign Language that was officially adopted by the state o Still changing to this day Gesturing and Hearing Adults Multilingual group study: o English, Spanish, CHINESE, Turkish SPEAKERS o Could not use speech, had to use gestural signs. o Could express simplistic ideas, not abstract ones o Curiously: SOV word order emerged even if underlying language is not! Gestures and the Deaf Deaf signers do gesture when they use sign language Deaf children produce as many gestures as hearing children Deaf children who gestured more frequently tended to succeed better at instructional tasks than those who gesture rarely. Corbalis and Gesture Gesturing was the foundation of speech Looks at evolutionary biology to determine how and when speech/language came about. Mirror Neurons Giacomo Rizzolatti et al. studied neural activity in the brains of monkeys. Specific brain area activates neurons when the monkey intentionally grasps for something ALSO activate when the monkey see another doing the same movement “mirror” The are in the monkeys’ brains corresponds to the location in the human brain called the Broca’s Area major language center of brain In both monkeys and humans, this area simultaneously sends signals to certain motor functions when gesturing or speaking o Impossible to speak without gesturing, it is instinctual We perceive speech not through acoustics but through how we ourselves would do it. Evolutionary History Early human gesturing heavily reliant on facial gestures evolution of facial bones provided better muscle control over facial articulation Vocal tract changed when hominin species began to walk fully upright allowed greater variation in sound production Extra muscles surrounding lungs gave more power to producing sounds. Gestures are pre-language for Corbalis Genetics History – FOXP2 Needed for normal speech production in humans o Found in most animals songbird testing Genetic studies believe the gene mutated specially for human between 38-45 kya Breeding with Neanderthal also have us a more microcephalingene regulating brain size (bigger) Corbalis Answers, “Why” Utilitarian thing o Spatial Reach o Freeing the hands o Diversity and the “Language Fortress” Wednesday, March 16, 2016 Myths of Sign Language Sign languages are universal o Like spoken languages, depends on numerous factors that explain variation Sign languages are same language as one that is spoken “just done with the hands” o Small grammatical relationships to spoken languages i. Word order (SVO, SOV, etc.) Changes occur via other sign languages, not other spoken languages. Sign Language and Written Language Written language enters sign language through iconicity”fingerspelling”. No universal fingerspelling alphabets o E.g. USA and Europe use one-handed fingerspelling UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand use a two-handed approach Sign Language and d/Deaf Socialization Three major levels of social scale that are NOT mutually exclusive: o Deaf community: largest scaleanyone who is interested in deaf issues. o Deaf culture: deaf and hearing peoples who follow semi- conventional rules of behavior o d/Deaf ethnicity: birthright important; can be deaf or born into a deaf family Lower case “deaf” vs uppercase “Deaf” one of ethnic social ties. Binary opposition of deaf/hearing in USA not universal either multiple variations. Variation arises from: geography, race, gender, ethnicity o Sign for “birthday” different even in the USA depending on region! o In Ireland, elderly deaf signers educated in gendered classroom settingsproduced gendered variation of Irish Sign Language Sign Language and d/Deaf Socialization, final Sign language, just like spoken language, is a practiced phenomenon that gives a certain model of reality to its user and at the same time socializes a person in a particular way Language in the 21st Century Pre-Internet history 16 Century EuropeRenaissance o Systematic classification & mathematics Imperialism o Bacon “knowledge is power” o Word collection(s) o Need to archive and understand Renaissance Three main innovations from Renaissance: o Library o Index o Article/Encyclopedia Library, Encyclopedia, Knowledge Library initially good, but spatially exclusive French philosophers recognized problemcrated encyclopedia Encyclopedia: o Massive but no complete o Slowly updated. Index Cards Paul Otlet – late 19 C Created pre-Dewey Decimal System Created archival sciences Derrida & “Archive Fever” The “compulsive, repetitive, and nostalgic desire for the archive, an irrepressible desire to return to the origin, a homesickness, a nostalgia for return to the most archaic place of absolute commencement” Freudian psychology – “death drive” Dual opposition of archive theory vs. archive practice o What is sough tot do versus what it actually did. Friday, March 18, 2016 Poe’s Theory of the Internet Altered social practices and the cultures in which it is embedded Produced a distinct “internet” culture of its own Aspects of Experience What “Pulled the Internet Who/what pulled the internet into this current practiced 3 Major Forces of Pull: o Industrial capitalism o The State o Cultural shifts (post 60’s) Industrial Capitalism Productivity decreased with larger bureaucracy R&D technology development protected by intellectual property rightsmoney! PCs primary pulling device of companies The State Welfare State o Keeping tack of millions State surveillance o Govt. already pit in millions, might as well fully use it Post 60’s Culture Mass expression of individualism The “good life” shouLd be pursuit of personal happiness Pornography explosion, desire to express feelings (blogs, Friendster, MySpace, IM) Human Nature () & the Internet Poe believes “people were ready” for the Internet to emerge as it is today Anomalies and Puzzle-Solving “A book takes out on a trip from here to there; the Internet takes you on a trip from here to God-knows-where” Internet Culture It will: o Spread further and wider o Be used for pleasure o Link the past with the present through language o Create social groups and communities o Save everything, making is both knowledgeable yet also vulnerable. Social Networking Sites (SNS) – Culture & Language Anthropology and SNS in general: o Tension in anthropology over discussion of internet and its effects o Traditionally linked with small-scale societies: global reach o SNS challenges old dichotomies: neighborhood vs. network, family vs peers, public vs. private o Miller: internet now a new form of social networking but an unconscious attempt to return to old forms of social construction. Past SNS Studies Popularity of sites like Facebook were not “inevitable” but a reflection of desiring similarity yet uniqueness. People have begun compiling their lives archive fever; self- aggrandizement of the individual Most studies have yet to prove or disprove the importance of SNS. Comparative Anthropology of SNS Cultural relativism: o Cultures may change but also localize global processes and institutions o East Adian SNS: CyWorld in S. Korea organized to reflect Korean custom of viewing kin relations in center/periphery relations. Aesthetically of these SNS made to look “cute” distance from the coldness of technology. o Broadbent: “attention” protocols: different cultures have a spectrum of acceptable linguistic action. Philippines high immediacy of answering vs. UK USA Tales From Facebook: Globalization Looked at Trinidad discourse on Facebook Trinidad culture already geared towards a practice of intense and explicit social scrutiny o They ere “ready” for Facebook Believe the “truth” of a person is found not in the physical self, but the virtual one. o Word for “hanging out” —liming— now encompasses spending social time online o Globalization does not simply destroy culture it is more a process of change Localized ways of speaking and doing take global social phenomena and re-cast them culturally. Trolls Just Want to Have Fun – Buckels et al. Trolling: the practice of behaving in a deceptive, destructive, or disruptive manner in a social setting on the internet with no apparent instrumental purpose. Dark Tetrad personality traits detected in trolling activities: o Narcissism, Machiavellianism (authoritarianism/manipulative), psychopathy, sadism. Study: 418 participants from the US, two studies reported trolling tendencies and behavior types. Testing through Language Participants given large questionnaires with the “key questions” scattered about o Language attributed to one of the Dark Tetrad provided index for researchers. o E.g. “I have been compared to famous people” or “It’s not wise to tell your secrets”. o Internet activities (like debating, shopping, commenting, trolling, etc.) ranked and use were also asked. First Study: showed correlation b/w people with highest Dark Tetrad attributes and those who listed trolling as favorite internet pastime Second Study: showed correlation b/w frequency of commenting and Dark Tetrad, especially narcissism in online debating. Discussion Sadism was the biggest indicator of positive views of trolling and the Dark Tetrad trolls defined largely through sadistic impulses. Trolling behaviors and practices ultimately indexed through the psychological need to harm Among the “trolls” identified in the study, the frequency of enjoying trolling was directly linked to identity it was almost necessary for these people to practice trolling. Technology use and anti-sociality o Anonymous aspects of the internet help antisocial people express their dark tetrad personalities