Write Lewis structures for the following ions: (a) O22 2 , (b) C22 2 , (c) NO1, (d) NH1 4 . Show formal charges.
PSYC 160 Exam 2 Study Guide CHAPTER TWO Genetics, Prenatal Development, and Birth Genes Basic unit of genetic info; composed of DNA Chromosomes A structure found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. 46 of them arranged in 23 pairs Klinefelter’s Syndrome Males born with an extra X chromosome, which results in underdeveloped genitals, enlarged breasts, and extreme height Genotype Combination of genetic material that’s not outwardly visible (ex. hereditary diseases) Phenotype Traits that can be seen (ex. eye color) Dominant-recessive genes If one gene of a pair is dominant and the other is recessive, the dominant gene is the one present X-linked recessive genes Located only on X chromosome, because its defective (ex. allergies) Polygenic Traits Characteristics influenced by multiple pairs of genes Genetic Counseling Testing for diseases that can be passed down to their kids, such as ultrasounds, CVS, and amniocentesis Ultrasound Sonography Images of the fetus, such as size, shape, and sex Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Taking placenta samples during the 10- 13 week of pregnancy to see if there’s a problem Amniocentesis Identifying genetic defects ththugh fetus samples during the 15-20 week of pregnancy Behavioral geneticists are primarily Identical and fraternal twins interested in… Can twins have two different dads Yes, but they must be fraternal Can women get pregnant when they’re Yes, there’s a 10 day window already pregnant Is it possible to have two uteri Yes, but typically the second one does not work Twin Facts a. 1 out of 250 Caucasian childbirths results in twins b. 1 out of 86 Caucasian childbirths result in fraternal twins PSYC 160 c. 1 out of 70 African American childbirths result in fraternal twins What percentage of intelligence is 50% inherited Can disorders be inherited Depends on the disorder Schizophrenia A brain disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. May result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior. Schizophrenia Facts Likely caused by genes Can be brought on by trauma (ex. war, abuse) Excessive use of drugs can trigger it Shows up in males around 19 and 22 in females Treatable, but not curable Schizophrenia Stats 1. 2 parents with schizophrenia high chance of schizophrenia 2. Neither parent has schizophrenia 10% chance of having schizophrenia 3. Identical twin with schizophrenia 48% chance other will have it 4. Fraternal, same sex twin with schizophrenia 13% chance other will have it 5. Fraternal, opposite sex twin with schizophrenia 6% chance other will have it Gene-environment correlation Gene is there but doesn’t show up until environment triggers it (ex. depression); 3 types Passive gene-environment Parents pass it on. Ex. social parents = social kids Evocative gene-environment A child’s genotype may illicit certain responses from others. Ex. cranky kids push others away Active gene-environment A child’s genotype will play a role in determining their environment. Ex. musicians hang out with other musicians Stages of the Prenatal Period Germinal, Embryonic, Fetal Germinal Stage (fertilization to 2 Cells develop rapidly and become increasingly specialized; 58% of all weeks) developing organisms fail to implant and don’t survive Embryonic Stage (2 to 8 weeks) Rapid cell differentiation and organs PSYC 160 begin to appear; 20% of miscarriages occur during this critical period Fetal Stage (8 weeks to birth) Rapid changes and hormones are released, which determine the sex of the fetus; 5% of miscarriages occur during this period Infertility Inability to reproduce, but may be corrected with treatment, such as fertility drugs In vitro fertilization (IVF) Egg is fertilized outside of body and implanted in the vagina Artificial Insemination Placing sperm directly in vagina. 1 in every 10 artificial inseminations result in multiple births Who is more likely to have identical Neither genetics, identical or fraternal twins What are the odds of fraternal twins 1 in 12 having two dads What are the chances of having 1 out of 200 million identical triplets Teratogens Anything that may harm or lead to death of a fetus/embryo, including drugs (nonprescription and prescription), alcohol, smoking, environmental pollutants, etc. Environmental Pollutants 2ndhand smoke, lead paint, cat litter, mercury, radiation What is the easiest way to give birth Standing up Where to give birth in the U.S. 1. At hospital with doctors 2. At home with midwife Is childbirth the same everywhere No, it’s different in every culture Postpartum depression a.k.a. Baby Depression that occurs in new mothers Blues after childbirth; Best solution: support C HAPTER THREE Physical Growth and Aging across the Life Span Principles of Growth All humans follow the same pattern of growth and development. Infancy Changes in growth every day, including weight, height, and brain maturation What is the average newborns weight 7 pounds, 20 inches and length T/F At 6 months, a baby’s weight has True doubled. T/F After 1 year, a baby’s weight has False, a baby’s weight has tripled PSYC 160 quadrupled. Preschool The least amount of weight is put on during this time and height is approx. 36 in. tall Middle Childhood The Calm Period, because growth is slow, but consistent Puberty The beginning of sexual maturation in girls and boys For girls… Menstruation starts around age 11 or 12 and as early as 8 in girls. Weight and body fat play a role in reproductive maturity African American tend to start earlier For boys… Puberty starts around age 13 or 14 and as early as 10 Girls vs. Boys Only 23% of females saw their first period as something to celebrate, while 62% of males saw their first ejaculation as something to celebrate Second sex characteristics Features that appear during puberty, such as pubic hair T/F Body image affects females more True than males. Early Adulthood Subtle changes, like sagging skin, changes in muscle elasticity, and thinning hair Middle Adulthood Changes in appearance and a decline in motor skills In women… Menopause starts as early as 30s and as late as mid 50s In men… Andropause is defined as a decrease in testosterone, low libido, and erectile dysfunction Neural Noise Increases in neural activity in the central nervous system causes a decrease in motor skills Late Adulthood Changes in physical appearance and health Gross Motor Skills Large movements, such as crawling and rolling over Fine Motor Skills Small movements, like writing Motor skills and infants At 6 months they begin inching forward At 8-10 months they are crawling At 1 year they can walk by themselves Cephalocaudal Describes the general growth pattern of organisms to develop starting at the head and working its way down PSYC 160 Proximodistal Development of motor skills starts at the center of an organism and radiates outwards Dynamics System Theory For us to develop motor skills, we need to be motivated to retrieve an object The Ache culture Infants are restricted from physical activity The Kipsigis culture Believe infants should be active and will place their infant in a hole to keep them upright and encourage development of motor skills The Algonquin culture Infants spend most of their first year strapped on to board and placed on their parents backs The Jamaican culture Regularly massage their infants Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Represents a guide that helps parents, Assessment Scale health care providers and researchers understand the newborn's language CHAPTER FOUR Health and Wellness Eating Disorders Psychological disorders characterized by abnormal or disturbed eating habits Obesity Unhealthy condition of being overweight Consequences of obesity Junior diabetes, sleep apnea, hypertension, low self-esteem Anorexia Nervosa A form of starvation, which may lead to death. Anorexia Facts 15-20% of anorexics will starve themselves to death. About 10% of anorexics are males. Tends to affect well educated, middle to upper income females. Bulimia Binging and then purging through vomiting and/or laxatives Bulimia Facts Associated with depression and low self-esteem. Can only be categorized as bulimic if you purge 2 times a week for 3 consecutive months Starts around late adolescence and 12- 22% of college age females are affected Common STIs Gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, oral and genital herpes STIs Stats 1. In the U.S., approx. 20 million new infections occur every year and half of PSYC 160 those cases are from the age range of 15-24 2. In the U.S. 110 million people are currently affected by STIs 3. Costs U.S. 16 billion every year to treat STI cases HIV/AIDS AIDS is a chronic, potentially life- threatening condition caused by HIV. By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. HIV/AIDS Facts i. In 2011, over 1 million were affected by it and numbers are continuously increasing ii. African Americans and gay and bisexual men are most affected iii. 50,000 new cases are diagnosed each year iv. Worldwide, 35 million are living with AIDS v. 36 million have died from AIDS since 1981 vi. Every day, 5,700 die from AIDS, particularly people in African countries PSYC 160 DSM-5 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Depression A mood disorder associated with sadness and thought to be caused by low serotonin levels Personality Disorders Enduring pattern of behavior that does not fit the norm and leads to impairment Obsessive-Compulsive P.D. A mental condition in which a person is preoccupied with: making lists, rules, control Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Excessive thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Borderline P.D. A mental disorder characterized by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships. Problem with boundaries Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Treatment for borderline p.d. Antisocial P.D. A mental health disorder characterized by disregard for other people Narcissistic P.D. A disorder in which a person has an inflated sense of self-importance Diathesis Stress Model States that if the combination of the predisposition and the stress exceeds a threshold, the person will develop a disorder Alzheimer’s Mental deterioration 1. If 1 parent has it, 50% chance child will have it 2. in 2004 it was the 7 leading cause of death 3. in 2005, there were 5 million diagnosed cases 4. Expected to triple in next 50 years Early onset Alzheimer’s Younger than 65; life expectancy is 4-5 years Late onset Alzheimer’s 65 and older; life expectancy is 10 years Parkinson’s Disease A disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors. Coffee Caffeine has many benefits, including memory retention and protection against many diseases Rodin and Langer Performed a study on nursing home residents and found that letting residents make decisions for PSYC 160 themselves resulted in happier and healthier people Breastfeeding Benefits Decreases childhood cancer and UTIs. Appears to make kids smarter. 9 out of 10 children who were breastfed had an IQ 7 points higher than those who weren’t