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What is bond enthalpy? Bond enthalpies of polyatomic

Chemistry | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780078021510 | Authors: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby ISBN: 9780078021510 98

Solution for problem 9.67 Chapter 9

Chemistry | 12th Edition

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Chemistry | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780078021510 | Authors: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby

Chemistry | 12th Edition

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Problem 9.67

What is bond enthalpy? Bond enthalpies of polyatomic molecules are average values, whereas those of diatomic molecules can be accurately determined. Why?

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Chapter 2: Chemical context of life 1/7/16 Why Chemistry ● Bombardier beetle defense against ants ● Redox reaction ● Multidisciplinary science Matter Sodium + chlorine → sodium chloride (solid + liquid → salt (solid compound)) ● Diverse form ● Elements (92 in nature), compounds ● 6 Essential elements (CHONPS) (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, prosperous, sulfur) ● Trace elements Atom ● Smallest unit with the properties of an element ● Nucleus ● Protons (+charges) ● Neutrons (no charge) ● Atomic number: protons, and determines what the element is, it doesn’t changes ● Mass number: protons + neutrons, can change, like isotopes Isotopes ● Same element with different # of neutrons ● Same atomic # ● Different mass # ● Can be used for o Carbon dating o Atomic bomb ▪ Iran and Uranium enrichment Energy levels of electrons ● First shell (2e-) ● Second shell (8 e-) ● Third shell (8e-) ● Moving outward from atomic nucleus: energy absorbed ● Moving inward from atomic nucleus : energy lost ● Electron configurations ( SPDF) ● Chemical behavior of atom depends on o Valence shell o Valence electrons Periodic Table ● Atomic number, element symbol, atomic mass ● Ordered by shells Chemical bonds ● When atoms combine to form molecules and ionic compounds o Incomplete→ complete valance shells o Will only combine with another element that completes each other shells o Full 8e- ● Atoms share or transfer valence electrons o Hydrogen bonds Covalent bond ● Two atoms sharing a pair of valence electrons ● 2H can share bonds to become H2 ● Pure element ● Compounds vs. molecule ● Single bond ● Double bond ● Note valence electrons ● Examples o Hydrogen H2 o Oxygen O2 (double bond) o Water H2O o Methane CH4 Electronegativity ● Attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond ● Nonpolar covalent bond (equal pulling) ● Polar covalent bond (unequal pulling) o Ex. Water ▪ 1H and 1 O are negative ▪ 1H is positive o Partial charges; negative and positive o Not pulling hard: positive o Pulling hard: negative ● Ionic bond o So unequal in valence shell attraction that electron stripped away o Bond is formed due to opposite charges ● NaCl→ Na+Cl- o Sodium atom + chlorine atom→ sodium chloride o Na=cation o Cl=anion ● Strong bonds, when you break them apart, they release more energy ● Weak chemical bonds o What’s the advantage ▪ Easier to break, o Hydrogen bonds ▪ Weak bond individually, but when there are a lot of them they can become strong ▪ Ex. Water (H2O) and Ammonia (NH3) ● H positive, N negative

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Chapter 9, Problem 9.67 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 12
Author: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby
ISBN: 9780078021510

The answer to “What is bond enthalpy? Bond enthalpies of polyatomic molecules are average values, whereas those of diatomic molecules can be accurately determined. Why?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 22 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 12. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 25 chapters, and 3241 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 9.67 from chapter: 9 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 09/09/17, 04:35AM. Since the solution to 9.67 from 9 chapter was answered, more than 326 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780078021510.

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What is bond enthalpy? Bond enthalpies of polyatomic