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Draw Lewis structures for the following organic | Ch 9 - 9.95

Chemistry | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780078021510 | Authors: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby ISBN: 9780078021510 98

Solution for problem 9.95 Chapter 9

Chemistry | 12th Edition

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Chemistry | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780078021510 | Authors: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby

Chemistry | 12th Edition

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Problem 9.95

Draw Lewis structures for the following organic molecules: (a) tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), (b) propane (C3H8), (c) butadiene (CH2CHCHCH2), (d) propyne (CH3CCH), (e) benzoic acid (C6H5COOH). (To draw C6H5COOH, replace a H atom in benzene with a COOH group.)

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March 15 Was there a Big Decision If so, when Endlosung ● No written order ever found ● Historians disagree on the date Documentation ● Much destroyed, covered­up, or altered ● Yet Holocaust is the best­documented mass crime in history ● Decision: Circumstantial evidence and testimony Hitler as a Political Leader ● Usually did not assign a task ● Those “on the spot” who knew best how to accomplish a mission are given assignments ● Instead of orders, gives general statements or authorizations ○ E.g. Euthanasia in 1939 The Jews ● “Final Solution of the German Jewish problem” ● Endlosung used one of the first times December 19,1939 ○ Still meant a “territorial solution” (i.e. resettlement) Most Historian Agree ● There had to be a decision, or decisions ○ Likely came after June 22, 1941 (date of Operation Barbarossa, attack on Soviet Union) ○ AH had detailed knowledge and remarkable memory­­knew what was going on. Hitler and Murderous Thoughts ● Hepp Letter ○ Heinrich Heim (1920) ■ Hitler says “Jews are a bacillus… Should not be tolerated to stay in Germany, but eliminated.” ● Preview of AH “redemptive anti­semitism” ● Parallels himself to Robert Koch Walter Hewel ● AH: July 10, 1941 ○ “I feel like the Robert Koch of politics. He found the bacillus and showed how to treat it with medical science. I discovered the Jews as a bacillus, as the cause, of all social decomposition.” Key Meetings 1941 ● July 16: Hitler with top leaders, military, and civil (like Goehring) on war aims. ● Task now: “cutting up the giant cake” as needed ● No enemy army is left to conquer west of Urals. Authorizing Final Solution 1941 ● July 31: Goeing Commissions Heydrich ○ To work out plans for “evacuation” or “emigration” of Jews ■ Aka “resettlement” code words ■ Euphemism: a word that sounds better than what it actually means ● I.e. “Passed away” versus “Dead” Goehring to Heydrich ● “Supplementing task” assigned to you by decree January 24, 1939 ● “To solve the Jewish question” ○ Make preparations for a “final solution” Soon ● Endlosung (term used before) ○ Note: not yet order to carry out as such Immediate Follow­ups ● Priority now: “prepatory partial measures” ● To be resolved “for all of Europe at the latest after the war” ● Outlines steps to be taken ○ Especially separating Jews from the general population On the Ground in the East ● Wehrmacht reprisal killings ○ Executions by ESG increase ■ In July, mostly males ■ From August: also females and children Hitler Pressured by Gauleiter ● August­September 1941: deport remaining Jews from Germany ● His priority is winning the war ● “Solution” of Jewish question in Western Europe after war’s end­­likely soon ● September 15: bombing attack on Hamburg ● Gauleiter asks for deportation of Jews to free up dwellings for displaced Germans ● Hitler agrees, war soon over anyway Star Decree in Germany ● From September 15, 1941: Jews must wear yellow Star of David on clothing ● From October 24: crime to be a “friend” of Jews, show a friendly act (such as a handshake) in public toward a Jew. Himmler Order ● Sept 18, 1941 ● Fuhrer wishes… West to East… be freed of Jews asap. A Turning Point ● Oct 23, 1941: Gestapo order: Stop all Jews from leaving “the Reich” ● Until then: Jews should be driven out ○ Now none are allowed to escape German Deportations ● October­December 1941: Deported about 42,000 to ghettos in East ● November 1941 onwards: 50,000 from “greater” Reich ○ To various destinations Murders of deported: “inconsistent” ● Some killed immediately, others not. ● The decision likely not taken ● ESG mass murders in the East in full swing Other Dates for Decision ● December 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor ● December 11: German Declaration of War on U.S. ○ “World War” special meaning ● AH meets leaders on December 12. ○ Verbal order for the “Final Solution” Hitler ● December 12­18, 1941: Intensive activity ● Met individually with Himmler, etc., Eastern Experts ● Set guidelines for killing Jews in Soviet Union Himmler Desk Calendar ● Notes on December 18: “Jews to be shot as partisans” ○ Supposedly Hitler’s “justification” ○ Himmler recruited more euthanasia personnel at this time The Fundamental Decision ● December 12, 1941 ● Surely decision made before, here reinforced ● Now all European Jews The Death Camps (March 17) Homogeneous ● Holocaust is not one event, happening, site, or action. ● Heterogeneous: a mosaic of discrete episodes, some planned, others spontaneous, improvised, “unforced behavior.” Holocaust tracks or Simultaneous Actions ● Einsatzgruppen + Police Battalions ● Ghettoization: exploitation vs. destruction ● Death Camps ● And collaboration Hitler pressured by Gauleiter (regional bosses) ● Aug­Sept 1941: deport remaining Jews from Germany ● His priority winning the war ● “Solution” of Jewish question in Western Europe after the war’s end­­likely soon. ● Sept 15: Bombing attack on Hamburg ○ Gauleiter asks for deportation of Jews to free up dwellings for Germans ■ Hitler agrees, war soon over anyway Star Decree in Germany ● From Sept 15, 1941 ● From October 24: “break all social contact in public” ○ Illegal to show friendship with Jews Himmler Order ● Sept 18, 1941 ● Fuhrer wishes… West to East… [be] freed of Jews asap Hitler’s Observations at Lunch ● Oct 17 on “the East” ● Local population to be treated “as Indians” and “sifted” ● “We are getting rid of the destructive Jews entirely” Hitler in Private ● Oct 21: Christianity and Bolshevism two versions of Jewish threat ● “When we exterminate this plague, then we perform a deed for humanity A turning point ● October 23, 1941: Gestapo order: Stop all Jews from leaving “The Reich” ○ Until then: Jews should be driven out ○ Now: None allowed to escape Hitler mentions Prophesy ● October 25: Private meeting with Himmler and Heydrich ● “Let no one say to me: We cannot send them into the swamp… it is good when terror precedes us that we are exterminating the Jews.” German Deportations ● Oct­Dec 1941: deported approx. 42,000 to ghettos in the East ● November 1941 onwards: 50,000 from “greater Reich” ● To various destinations Murders of deported “inconsistent” ● Some killed immediately, others not ○ The decision likely not taken ● ESG mass murders in the East in full swing Other Dates for Decision ● December 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor ● December 11: German Declaration of War on US ● “World War” special meaning ○ Once US enters, now there is “World War” ○ According to Hitler’s Prophecy: the Jews can now be held responsible and exterminated. ● AH meets with leaders on December 12 Hitler ● December 12­18, 1941: Intensive activity ● Met individually with Himmler, etc, and Eastern Experts ○ Set guidelines for killing Jews in occupied Soviet Union: at least made his “wish” clear Himmler Desk Calendar ● Notes on Dec 18: “Jews to be shot as partisans” ● Supposedly Hitler’s “justification” ● Himmler recruited more euthanasia staff The Fundamental Decision ● Dec 12, 1941 ○ Surely a decision made before, and reinforced here ○ From German and Polish Jews, to all the European Jews, to all the Jews in the world Wannsee Conference ● December 9, 1941: moved to January 20, 1942 ● Chaired by Reinhard Heydrich ● Not the decision­making event, instead: ○ Insured administrative cooperation among officials, administration, etc. ○ Clarify that Heinrich Himmler, & Reinhard Heydrich in charge ○ Discuss Mischling (mixed­race) question Center­Periphery ● Much left to individual leaders ● Typical Hitler statement: ○ “Act according to your best judgement” New Territories ● Some not incorporated: like GG ● Like “Wartheland” or “Warthegau” ● Gauleiter Arthur Greiser Warthegau ● Arthur Greiser Obtains Hitler’s permission to push out Jews ● No documentation: likely ● Mid­July to mid­Sept. 1941 Sonderkommando (SK) Herbert Lange (15 Men) ● To ESG 4 (September 1939) ● “Clearing” Psychiatric Patients ● Order: find out more efficient methods ○ For new “Warthegau” Lange ● 1939: Tasked with killing mental patients ○ Over wide area in Warthegau ● Used mobile gas chamber ● CO gas from cylinders: little documentation Hiding the Obvious ● Crucial: keep victims in the dark ○ Lead to believe “not so bad” ○ Tell them they are going to the East for work ■ “Resettlement” “Evacuation” etc. Warthegau Fall 1941 ● “Cleared” small ghettos ○ Taken by truck to nearby forests ■ Likely via gas van and killed SK Lange ● September 1941: Cleared all Jews from hospitals and then more ● Konin and other counties ● Lange’s trial and error method Konin county (today) Poland ● Evidence of Jews there since 1397 ● Sept 20 to Oct 10, 1941 ○ Approx. 3,000 taken, about 100 per trip ○ Gas van to nearby forest Kill all Jews Unfit for Work ● In Warthegau, estimated 100,000 Jews ● Two options: ○ Bring gas to the victims (gas vans( ○ Bring the victims to the gas (fixed locations, i.e. death camps) Local Goal ● To kill ever larger numbers Chelmno “Death Camps” ● These sites served a single purpose ● Produced only death ● Euthanasia “Specialists” use modern technology to kill largest numbers in cheapest ways Chelmno ● Construction begins Nov. 1 ● Extermination camp in mid­town ● Another camp built later in forest nearby ● Lange and 11 others establish killing site. Isolated Cluster of Buildings ● Old mansion renovated Death Camp Image ● Clumsy, messy, incredibly brutal ● Learned by trial and error ● Methods slowly devised to make it easier, faster work for killers ● Nothing clinical “Camp” ● Elaborately disguised arrival ● People told stories, then led into mansion aka “castle” ● Need to be disinfected ● Into the gas vans Komm. Lange ● Took over November 1941 ● December 8, 1941: First gassing ● Initiative comes from Arthur Greiser ○ Mainly, not only, for Jews from Warthegau Chelmno ● Camp continued working, off and on, until 1944 ● Destroyed to cover up ● Death toll: estimated 152,000 ● 3 known Jewish survivors 3/22 Neighbors Jan Gross ● Author ● Born to Jewish father and non­Jewish mother ● Due to books, unpopular in Poland ○ Works at Princeton University Demarcation Line: Poland ● Border of Poland and Soviet Union Jan Gross, Neighbors ● Most striking story ● When do Germans arrive Issue orders ● Role of locals ● What happened Role of the Poles ● Beyond doubt: Court records show active involvement of non­Jewish Poles ● Question: What was extent and nature of possible German participation Not settled. Divided Memory ● Occupied nations were victims ● Poland: False Narrative of suffering and resistance ○ Paints Poland in a better light as unfortunate, suffering victims who were forced to participate ○ Reality: Not just helpers, but killers too ■ In Jedwabne Not just the Poles ● Research in ○ Ukraine ○ Baltic States ○ Romania ○ Hungary (etc) ○ Everywhere there was some resistance, but more collaboration Two forms of Collaboration ● Big “C” and small “c” ○ 1. “C” easier to deal with by history ○ State to state assistance etc. (example: France) ○ Varied, even among German allies German Allies: Each Country Reacts/Behaves Differently ● Italy ○ Fascist Government; More resistant ■ A lot of Jews hidden (a lot taken, but still) ● Hungary ○ Very Anti­Semitic ■ But did not want to turn the Jews over to Germans ■ Started up Auschwitz again after German occupation ○ Youth groups would go after Jews and kill them ● Bulgaria ○ Very Fascist; refused to send away any Jews ○ Bulgarian People/Churches saved thousands; went over the border to save Jews in other countries ■ What did the Germans do Nothing. ● Romania ○ “Too horrible to talk about” ● Big “C” and small “c” ○ 2. “c” collaboration of civilians ○ As members of militias, police, etc. ○ As informers, neighbors, killers ○ Still explosive today, hence ​Neighbors Implications ● 1. Holocaust needed collaborators ● 2. Not only German problem, but a European one ● 3. Extent of killing varied: greater degree of complicity, greater % killed ● 4. The Holocaust was driven from Berlin ● 5. Germans gave license: But it was a local event and many locals across Europe took advantage ● 6. Some did not, but they were the exception ● 7. Holocaust not a single event, or homogeneous; but heterogeneous, 1000s of small and large ones ● 8. Some planned, some not; some forced, others did it freely ● 9. Built on anti­Semitism, also anti­Communism Holocaust and Reprisal Policy Detour to Yugoslavia and Greece ● October 1940: Italy invades Greece ● AH comes to aid, also to keep GB away from Romanian oil fields ● April 6 invasion, then quick victory over Yugoslavia and Greece Reprisal Ratio ● Here: order to execute ● 100 civilians, for 1 German soldier killed ● 50 for 1 German soldier wounded Wehrmacht Report Serbia ● Period up to December 15, 1941 ○ German casualties ■ People shot and to be shot in reprisal

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Chapter 9, Problem 9.95 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 12
Author: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby
ISBN: 9780078021510

Since the solution to 9.95 from 9 chapter was answered, more than 249 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “Draw Lewis structures for the following organic molecules: (a) tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), (b) propane (C3H8), (c) butadiene (CH2CHCHCH2), (d) propyne (CH3CCH), (e) benzoic acid (C6H5COOH). (To draw C6H5COOH, replace a H atom in benzene with a COOH group.)” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 37 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 12. Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780078021510. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 9.95 from chapter: 9 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 09/09/17, 04:35AM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 25 chapters, and 3241 solutions.

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Draw Lewis structures for the following organic | Ch 9 - 9.95