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List the three states of matter, and give an example for

Chemistry: Matter & Change | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780078746376 | Authors: McGraw-Hill Education ISBN: 9780078746376 131

Solution for problem 36 Chapter 3

Chemistry: Matter & Change | 1st Edition

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Chemistry: Matter & Change | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780078746376 | Authors: McGraw-Hill Education

Chemistry: Matter & Change | 1st Edition

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Problem 36

List the three states of matter, and give an example for each state. Differentiate between a gas and a vapor.

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Psychology of Learning – Choice: Concurrent Contingencies Understand what concurrent schedules are! ­A brief description of concurrent schedules:  Lab methods for studying choice  2+ schedules available simultaneously  Reinforcers that are available at the same time fight for control of behavior ­ Think of an alarm clock as an example. Whenever your alarm is going off in the morning, there are two potential reinforcers. First, pressing the “snooze” button is reinforced by the soothed feeling you get after that extra five minutes of sleep. On the other hand, whenever you turn the alarm off, the annoying beeping sound stops. The elimination of this annoying sound reinforces you to turn the alarm off and get out of bed. So, which reinforcer wins at the end (This is just an example to show how concurrent schedules work.) ­So, in short, concurrent schedules are what is taking place when multiple reinforcers are available at the same time and are contesting for control of behavior. Other valuable terms relating to schedules and reinforcement: ­Concurrent integral schedules  Whenever someone responds on schedule A, reinforcement is set up on schedule B  Encourages switching (from one schedule/behavior to another) ­Changeover delay  A procedure that is used to make it to where the subject doesn’t rapidly switch between one behavior and another on concurrent schedules of reinforcement ­15­second changeover delay  15 seconds must pass before the alternative behavior is reinforced ­Relative rate  Only part of the total available response or reinforcement rate Understand values and rates!  Would you see more responding on a VI 5 or a VI 15 ­ You would see more responding on a VI 5, because a VI 5 is reinforced more. (Note: the lower the number, the more it’s reinforced.)  Always convert values to rates! Here are some basic conversions you should know: ­ VI 60 s = 1 ­ VI 90 s = .667 ­ VI 30 s = 2 ­ VI 120 s = 0.5 ­ VI 45 s = 1.33 The four basic operants + examples  The 4 basic operants are: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment.  Positive reinforcement ­ A boy receives $3 from his mom every time he receives an A on his homework.  Negative reinforcement ­ For each A that a boy receives on his report card, his mom makes him do one less house chore. (His mom taking away a stimulus­ a chore­ reinforces him to do well in school.)  Positive punishment ­ A man is texting on his phone at a work meeting, and his boss reprimands him for it in front of everyone.  Negative punishment ­ A young girl is playing with her favorite toy. She says a curse word, and her mom takes her toy away immediately after. Other important things to know for quizzes: *These all either showed up on a quiz, or the teacher said they probably would! Quiz yourself over all of these. 1. In relative time matching, it is difficult to count out certain behaviors. That is, it is hard to understand how many times a behavior has occurred. Take sex for example. Let’s say a couple has sex throughout the night. How do you determine how many times they had sex Was it just one long period of sex Does every time they stopped to catch their breath for five minutes constitute as the next round starting Every time just one of them orgasmed (except, what if no orgasms occur at all) Where do you draw the line 2. Is there ever a scenario in which there are not concurrent contingencies The answer is actually no. That means, there are always multiple reinforcers vying for control over behavior. For example, let’s say you are studying in your apartment. Your roommates are being loud, so you decide to relocate to the library. The library is better, but there are still distractions, like students walking past you or whispering to each other one table over. 3. An example of the quantitative law of effect: You’re trying to go on a diet; R is ahe reinforcement from the weight loss. Friends buying you food is an example of R (akae all other reinforcers). *The quantitative law of effect always includes R and R . Know how to differentiate a e between the two. 4. Operants are defined by the consequences they produce. 5. Mazes and puzzles are both examples of devices that require discrete­trial methodology. 6. Latency, error rate, reaction time, response rate are all measurements of behavior that facilitate making predictive statements about response probability. 7. Positive reinforcement refers to an increase in response rate produced by the presentation of a stimulus. 8. To produce novel behavior, it is often necessary to “shape” the behavior. That is, it is necessary to differentially reinforce successive approximation to the target behavior. 9. Prior to shaping an organism’s behavior, you may have to perform magazine training. That is, you may have to habituate the organism in order to have it perform the task you want. 10. When “shaping,” you repeatedly reinforce one class of behavior while simultaneously extinguishing another. *It would also be helpful to read more about “shaping” in Don’t Shoot the Dog by Karen Pryor. This might be accessible at your school library, or you can read about it in pages 22­25 of the following pdf: http://marul.ffst.hr/~dhren/nastava/pedagoska/Don't%20shoot %20the%20dog.pdf

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Chapter 3, Problem 36 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: Matter & Change
Edition: 1
Author: McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN: 9780078746376

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List the three states of matter, and give an example for