Determine the ratio of areas, A1/A2, of the two manometer legs of Fig. P2.63 if a change in pressure in pipe B of 0.5 psi gives a corresponding change of 1 in. in the level of the mercury in the right leg. The pressure in pipe A does not change.
(All definitions in bold) Day 1 Identical twins have the same DNA Life is unified by macromolecules (Lipids, Carbs, Proteins, Nucleic Acids DNA, RNA, protein codes), cells, energy pathways, evolution DNA codes for RNA which makes proteins Life is constrained by the properties of chemistry and physics Experiment: Tests the hypothesis, one variable at a time, test experiment and a control experiment Test vs control experiment: Predictions: hypotheses should suggest testable predictions; reject if results are inconsistent with predictions Inductive reasoning : Specific observations to develop general conclusions (observations, hypothesis) Deductive reasoning : General principles to make specific predictions (prediction, experimentation, conclusion) Hypothesis: Possible explanation of observations, test for validity, test in many ways, leads to predictions, iteritive (refined with new data) Iterative Hypothesis: having to repeat Hierarchical Organization of Systems: 1) Cellular level atoms, organelles, cells (basic unit of life) 2) Organismal level tissues, organs, organ systems 3) Population level population, community 4) Ecosystem level 5) Biosphere ecosystem of earth (such as our room, chairs, etc) Characteristic of Living Organisms: 1) Composed of cell(s) 2) Complex and ordered 3) Respond to their environment 4) Can grow, develop, reproduce 5) Obtain and use energy 6) Maintain internal balance (homeostasis) 7) Allow for evolutionary adaptation Emergent Property: It is liCell > Tissue > Organ > Organ System > Animal. It's the property where living things become more and more complex as it goes to higher levels. It's based on the concept that "the whole is greater than the composition of its parts." Ex: heart is made of cells only, but if you just have heart cells (sum of its parts) it won't do anything, but if the whole heart is there, it will perform the function of pumping blood (the whole is greater). Life is another example. Each level of biology has emergent properties, they result from the interaction of components, and cannot be deduced by looking at the parts themselves. Science is hypothesis driven, observation/reasoning, description (human genome sequence) Science is not mysterious, and not limited to labs or nature 3 mains levels of organization tissues, organs, organ system Day 2 The germ hypothesis versus the spontaneous generation hypothesis Experiment: swan neck flask, heating broth to kill existing organisms, wait to see if new organisms emerge (we wait to see what happens to broth if nothing can get in.) Germ hypothesis: We only get new life if there’s already existing life. Scientists use a systemic approach: using inductive/deductive reasoning. Control conditions: Experiment conditions: Conclusion: the growth of microorganisms in broth is due to preexisting organisms; this is the control to be sure that the broth could support growth Pasteurization: Don’t boil something until it is completely sterilized (don’t warm it enough to kill living things.) This will increase shelf life. Philosophical approaches to science: reductionism, systems biology Models in science: parts provided by reductionist approach, model shows how they fit together, suggests experiments to test the model, ways to organize concepts Reductionist Approach: Scientific Theory: A body of interconnected concepts, supported by experimental evidence and scientific reasoning, ideas of which we are most certain (NOT the general meaning of theory.) Unifying Themes: 1)The cell theory: cells are the basic unit of life, all living things are made of cells, all cells come from preexisting cells 2)Molecular basis of inheritance: DNA (large strand macromolecule), gene, genome, continuity of life depends on DNA copying into daughter cells. All organisms today descended from a creature 3.5 BYA, some characteristic are preserved (through DNA) 3)Information: Info in DNA directs synthesis of cellular components. Cells process environmental info. In multicell organisms, cells coordinate with each other. 4)Structure and Function: study structure to learn function (ex.receptor for human cell for insulin, find similar molecule in worm and predict similar function) 5)Diversity of Life Arises by Evolution: underlies unity, 3 domains Bacteria, Archaea (both of which are single celled prokaryotes), Eukarya (single or multi cell eukaryotes.) Non EQ state constant energy needed, self organizing properties at different levels, properties from collections of molecules, cells, individuals Day 3 Matter: Has mass and occupies space There are 90 elements, 12 are in organisms 96.3% of our bodies are made of H,O,N,C Electrons can be transferred between atoms. Oxidation is the loss of an electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons. Molecules are atoms in a stable association Cations are positively charged ions, anions are the opposite Opposite charges attract (ex.NaCl is an ionic compound) Electrical attraction of water molecules can disrupt ionic bonds Covalent bonds have no net charge More shared electrons = stronger bond No unpaired electrons (satisfies octet rule) Aren’t ionic bonds intramolecular as well (between molecules) ionic and hydrogen bonds are intermolecular Photosynthesis: 6H20 +6CO2 makes C6H12O6 +6O2 Ionic bonds are the weakest and release the least energy; hydrogen bonds are even weaker Double and then triple covalent bonds are stronger Nonpolar covalent bonds = equal sharing of electrons Cohesion: Water molecules attached to each other, due to hydrogen bonding (water to water.) Each individual bond is weak (The intermolecular attraction that holds molecules and masses together.) Adhesion: The process or condition of sticking or staying attached (water to other polar molecules) Day 4 HB are responsible for many of water’s important physical properties cumulative effects are enormous Inter and intra molecular forces polar covalent is intramolecular, HB is intermolecular water has adhesive properties capillary action!! Properties of water: 1) High specific heat a large amount of energy is required to change the temperature of water 2) High heat of vaporization the evaporation of water cools a surface 3) Solid water is less dense than liquid water bodies of water freeze from the top down 4) Water is a good solvent polar molecules and ions 5) Water organizes nonpolar molecules Hydrophilic (water loving); hydrophobic (water fearing), water causes hydrophobic molecules to aggregate or assume specific shapes 6) Water can form ions (protons) H2O > OH + H+ (hydroxide ion +hydrogen ion) Acids and Bases: water → [H+] of 10^7 mol/L; neutral pH is a negative log of H2 ion concentration of solution 6.022x10^16 H+/L = [H+] of 10^7 mol/L/ Acids are substances that dissociates in water to increase the H+ concentration, lowers pH Bases are substances that combine with hydrogen ions dissolved in water, lowers the [H+], increases the pH Buffers: substances that reduce pH change, releases H+ when base is added, absorb H+ when acid is added, overall effect is that the [H+] is relatively constant Biomolecules biological molecules mostly bonded to carbon (can be bonded to O, N, S, P, or H) and forms up to 4 covalent bonds Hydrocarbon : molecule of only C and H; nonpolar; functional groups add chemical properties Week 2 done Jan 25 Chapter 3 Biomolecules Biological molecules are mostly carbon bonded to C, O, N, S, P, or H Carbon forms up to 4 covalent bonds Hydrocarbon: only made of C and H they are nonpolar, functional groups add chemical properties Functional groups: Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carbonxyl, amino, methyl, sulfhydryl, phosphate Macromolecules are made of polymers (which are built by linking monomers) Monomers: small, similar chemical subunits Carbs, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids are the 4 macromolecules Dehydration: (condensation):polymerization, removal of water Hydrolysis: break molecules by addition of water, polymers to monomers (lyse means to cut) Carbohydrates: molecules with a 1:2:1 ratio of C, H, O 2 n CH covalent bonds high energy good energy storage molecules, (ex. sugars, starch, glucose) Monosaccharides: simplest carb, 6carbon sugars important, glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (structural isomer of glucose), galactose (stereoisomer of glucose), enzymes distinguish structural and stereoisomers Enantiomers: mirror images (subset of stereoisomers) Stereoisomers: mirror images of each other Alpha glucose and beta glucose In beta glucose, the hydroxyl group is on the opposite side of the ring Cellulose: structural carb that makes the leaves, stem, etc for plants Disaccharides:two monosaccharides linked by dehydration. Sugar transport or energy storage. Ex: sucrose (found in plants), lactose, maltose Sugars end in ose Glycolysis and cellular respiration is used to harvest the sucrose into ATP Polysaccharides: long chains of monosaccharides (dehydration synthesis), energy storage (plants starch, animals glycogen), structural support (plants cellulose, arthropods and fungi chitin.) Polysaccharides are used for structure and energy storage as their two main uses. Cellulose is unbranched and flat and its’ shape lets it make a long unbranched flat polysaccharide Something cannot be a carb and a hydrocarbon Nucleic Acids: monomers, for example nucleotides (sugar which is 5C ribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base.)1’ carbonphosphate group, 2’deoxyribonucleotide, 3’backbone for bond to phosphate, 4’ignore, 5’phosphate group Nucleotides: Sugar is deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA Monomers are nucleotides, polymers are nucleic acids, nucleotides connected by phosphodiester bonds Jan 27 sugar is deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA nitrogenous bases include purine:adenine and guanine pyrimidines are: thymine, cytosine, uracil DNA is the sequence of nitrogenous bases that codes amino acid sequence in proteins phosphodiester bonds are strong because it’s covalent C and G makes 3 hydrogen bonds with each other A and T make 2 bonds DNA makes a double helixtwo polynucleotide strands connected by hydrogen bonds RNA: RNA is similar to DNA but contains ribose instead of deoxyribose and contains uracil instead of thymine. Has a single polynucleotide strand. RNA uses info in DNA to specify sequence of amino acids in proteins. phosphodiester bonds are covalent bonds many sub types of covalent bonds: put in a pic of dna and rna here: when the phosphate is on the end it’s 5’, when it is a OH group it is a 3’ end Other nucleotides: ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the primary energy currency of cells NAD+ and FAD+ are electron carriers for many cellular reactions As we make DNA, we cut off 2 phosphates to make the phosphodiester bonds Jan 29 Between the 1 and the base on DNA, it’s a covalent bond Protein functions: transport (carrying things within cell), support (cytoskeleton, ECM), regulation, storage, defense, motion, enzyme (catalysis), receptor Proteins are polymers: one or more long, unbranched chains; each chain is a polypeptide Amino acids are monomers Amino acid structure: central carbon group, amino group, carboxyl group, single hydrogen, variable R group proteins and nucleic acids are both macromolecules and polymers Amino acid is made of: polar charged, non polar, charged nonaromatic, aromatic, special Dehydration and hydrolysis reactions: when a peptide bond is formed, these two functional groups form a new covalent bond: carboxyl and amino Hydrophobic exclusion: if you have a lot of hydrophobic functional groups, they’ll get away from water Four levels of structure: shape determines function: 1)primary structure sequence 2)secondary structure interaction of functional groups: alpha helix and beta pleated sheet (accordion shape) 3) Tertiary structurefinal folded shape of a polypeptide 4)Quaternary structuremultiple polypeptides Folding: a protein goes in, ATP provides energy and chaperone proteins(look up the procedure) and it makes a folded protein Folded protein vs denatured protein Feb 1 Feb 3 EXAM Feb 5 NEW UNIT