From calculus, one obtains the following formula 1Leibnitz rule2 for the time derivative of an integral that contains time in both the integrand and the limits of the integration: Discuss how this formula is related to the time derivative of the total amount of a property in a system and to the Reynolds transport theorem.

General Chemistry Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide Conversions Ex) 355 km 10^3m 10^3s = 355 m S 1 km ms ms Empirical Formula is the smallest ratio of elements. Ex) C2 H3 O2 is empirical C4 H6 O4 is not empirical. 2 can be divided out of them all. Molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula. Ex) Limiting reactant NH3 + O2 NO + H2O NO is the limiting reactant. Percent Yield Actual yield * 100% Theoretical Yield What is the percent yield of H2O if 138g is produced from 16g of H2 and excess O2 2H2 + 02 = 2H2O # g H2O = 16g H2 * 1 mol H2 * 2 mol H2O * 18.02g H20 = 143g H2O 2.02g H2 2 mol H2 1 mol H2O % yield = actual * 100% = 138g H2O *100% = 96.7% theoretical 143g H2O Formulas Grams given * 1 mol * 6.022x10^23 molecules = molecules Molar mass 1 mol Of element(s) XMass given * 1 mol of X * Ymoles given in formula * Grams of Y = Grams of Y Molar mass of X X moles given in formula 1 mol of Y Molarity = Moles of solute M = n n = v * M v = n Volume of solute (L) v M Molarity = mol M = mol L L Electrolytes are compounds that ionize and conduct electricity Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes Weak electrolytes are: HF HCN C2H4O2 Soluble Elements and compounds Li Na K Rb Cs NH4+ NO3 ClO4 C2H3O2 SO4^2 except Sr^2+ , Ba2+ , Hg2^2+ , Pb^2+ Cl Br except Ag+ , Hg2^2+ , Pb^2+ I Oxidation: loss of one or more electrons Reduction: gain of one or more electrons Redox: electrons are transferred H2 S O4 2(+1) + + 4(2) = 0 net charge +1 2 S = +6 (charges) Redox: hydrocarbon + 02(g) CO2(g) + H2O(l) Titration Net Ionic Equation Formulas for Wavelength, Energy, and Frequency: Wave length = Frequency = V Energy = E Planks constant = h h = 6.626x10^ 34 J*S Speed of light = c c = 3.00x10^8 m/s m = mass = c/v V=c/ E = h*V = h*c/ = h*c/E E=mc^2 Atomic Size of Elements Quantum Numbers Zeff = nuclear charge Zactual = number of inner electrons Zeff = Zactual – electron shielding Ex) Cl 17 protons – 10 electrons = +7 Cation is always smaller than the atom from which it was formed Anion is always larger Ionization energy = Ei1, Ei2, Ei3…… Ei2 is higher than Ei1… Lowest Ei values: group 1A (Alkali metals) Highest Ei values: group 8A (Nobel gasses) Ei values decrease going down within the groups. Covalent bond = sharing electrons and directional Ionic bonds= anions and cations and all directions Polar covalent = unequal sharing of electrons Resonance structures are multiple Lewis Structures for the same compound. Ex) Formal Charge = [# of valence e] – 1/2[# of bonding e] – [# of nonbonding e] Molecules are not flat, they have 3d shapes: for example H2O Elements and electron pairs are charge clouds, they want to repel each other and get as far away from each other as possible....