Water flows at a rate of 0.040 m3 /s in a 0.12-m-diameter pipe that contains a sudden contraction to a 0.06-m-diameter pipe. Determine the pressure drop across the contraction section. How much of this pressure difference is due to losses and how much is due to kinetic energy changes?

Chapter 15 Part 2: The Steady State Approximation: o Two limiting cases: Low pressure: When [M] is small, k2>k2[M] and rate is 2ndorder High pressure: When [M] is large, k1[M]>k2 and rate is 1 order Intermediates follow pseudo first-order kinetics Effects of temperature on reaction rates: o Many reactions increase rapidly with T Increase T by 10 degrees, rate doubles o Arrhenius equation states that rate constants depend exponentially on temperature. o k=Ae^-Ea/RT o lnk=lnA-Ea/RT o When plotted with y axis lnk and x axis 1/T, the slope is a negative linear one o Strong temperature dependence of reaction rates can be related to Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of KE. Fraction of molecules of energies>Ea Potential energy surface (PES): Interaction of reactants described by a potential energy surface Reactants approach on a reaction path. Activation energy for forward reaction: Ea,f Activation energy for reverse reaction: Ea,r Change in internal energy for reaction: DeltaE=Ea,f- Ea,r Elementary reactions always increase...