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The heat flux that is applied to the left face of a plane

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman ISBN: 9780470501962 111

Solution for problem 1.2 Chapter 1

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

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Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

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Problem 1.2

The heat flux that is applied to the left face of a plane wall is . The wall is of thickness L 10 mm and of thermal conductivity k 12 W/m K. If the surface temperatures of the wall are measured to be 50 C on the left side and 30 C on the right side, do steady-state conditions exist?

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Modern Political Thought: Overview of Morality and Economics By: Andrew Edwards Lecture by: Professor Day Adam Smith Background of Adam Smith  18 Century Scholar  Scottish Enlightenment Thinker  He wrote The Theory of Moral Sentiments and The Wealth of Nations  The government intervention that happened before the French Revolution only benefitted the rich and punished the poor and middle classes.  He believed England had a better economic system. Specific Ideas  He believed that people are social beings.  He created the concept of the sympathy model.  The sympathy model was based on the premise that we think about how others react to what we do.  This results in the regulation of our actions.  Our inner consciousness conforms to the moral standards that society has.  As a result, the bonds of society are created.  Smith believed that self­reflection and rational thinking were necessary so people could act morally.  Thus, Smith believed that we must be aware of who we are.  Utility makes an item more convenient.  People want more utility.  Status is achieved since wealth inspires us to work harder.  People value wealth more than utility.  E.G.: Watches were convenient and created social activity, but they show that people prefer wealth and status.  People place more emphasis on the means than on the ends.  Smith did not think individuality and self­interest were negative.  The rich continue to buy more products, but this creates more jobs so people can produce more.  Innovation and higher levels of efficiency caused prices to lower.  The lowering of prices meant that people from the middle and lower classes could buy more products.  Lower class citizens buy the items that the upper class so they can copy them out of admiration.  The rich are not happier simply because they own more products.  Self­interest, not altruism, is the main motivator.  Smith acknowledged people as they truly are.  E.G.: Butchers, bakers, and brewers serve their products for money, not to help people.  According to Smith, the invisible hand regulates the economy.  Many different decisions are made at the market.  Bureaucrats are not capable of accurately deciding what people desire and what to charge them.  Adam Smith believed in limited government, but he was not entirely against government regulation. Karl Marx Background of Karl Marx  German scholar and intellectual.  He is associated with the ideas of socialism and communism. Specific Ideas  History is rooted in class struggles and struggle is over conflicting material and economic interests.  He believed Communism was a synthesis of feudalism and capitalism.  In a hunter gatherer society, only animals to hunt and hunting tools were necessary.  In an agrarian society, only seeds and tools to till the land were needed.  In an industrial society, minerals, tools for mining them, manufacturing, and laborers are needed to mine the minerals, bring the products to the market, invent, and repair.  There is a small, ruling class with means to protect their authority.  Bourgeoisie: Upper­middle class and they control the means of production.  The larger class is the proletariat and it consists of laborers.  The first revolution in Russia was led by peasants.  In the modern state, the executive focuses more on the bourgeoisie just as the nobles and clergy had a higher standing in the government in France.  The ideological superstructure according to Marx is the foundation of every society.  The ideological superstructure also includes the ideas that are dominant in society.  It controls the ideas within society.  The ideological superstructure ultimately benefits the ruling class.  Marx believed humans are naturally good and that people are not self­interested.  He thinks people can be improved by state intervention.  Marx believed capitalism was once progressive but that it became obsolete.  Marx believed capitalism created alienation and destroyed the creative spirit.  Marx also believed that capitalism would bring about its own end.  Marx advocated for a proletariat revolution.

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Textbook: Introduction to Heat Transfer
Edition: 6
Author: Theodore L. Bergman
ISBN: 9780470501962

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The heat flux that is applied to the left face of a plane