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The concrete slab of a basement is 11 m long, 8 m wide,

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman ISBN: 9780470501962 111

Solution for problem 1.4 Chapter 1

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

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Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

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Problem 1.4

The concrete slab of a basement is 11 m long, 8 m wide, and 0.20 m thick. During the winter, temperatures are nominally 17 C and 10 C at the top and bottom surfaces, respectively. If the concrete has a thermal conductivity of 1.4 W/m K, what is the rate of heat loss through the slab? If the basement is heated by a gas furnace operating at an efficiency of f 0.90 and natural gas is priced at Cg $0.02/MJ, what is the daily cost of the heat loss?

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SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes Chapter43:ReproductionandEmbryonicDevelopment Lecturegiven3/29/16 HumanReproduction: • Bothspeciesmusthaveasetofgonads,ductsforgametetransport,and structuresforcopulation MaleReproduction: • Testesproducespermandmalehormones • Epididymisstoresspermastheydevelop • Multipleglandscontributetosemen:theseminalvesicles,theprostategland, andthebulbourethralglands • Duringejaculation:spermisexpelledfromthepenis,glandssecreteintothe urethra,andsemenisformedandexpelled • Spermproductionisregulatedbyanegativefeedbacksystem • Involvesthehypothalamus,anteriorpituitary,andthetestes • Testesistheorganaffectedbythesehormones;producespermandandrogens (sexhormonesthatcauselowervoice)oncemalereachespuberty • LHistheluteinizinghormonethatactsuponthecellsinthetestes,andFSHisthe folliclestimulatinghormonethatmakesthetestesproducetestosterone;these twohormonescomefromthefemalereproductivesystem FemaleReproduction: • Meanttocarryapregnancy SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes • Hormonessynchronizecyclicchangesintheovaryanduterus,approximately every28days;canbesynchronizedwithotherfemales • Thiscycle’spurposeistoprepareawomenforapregnancy,greatvariation betweeneverywoman • ThehypothalamussignalstheanteriorpituitarytosecreteFSHandLH o LH–stimulatesgrowthoffollicle,promotesovulationanddevelopment ofcorpusluteum o FSH–stimulatesgrowthoffollicle • Triggerthegrowthofanovarianfollicleandovulation • Afterovulation,thefolliclebecomesthecorpusluteum • Thecorpusluteumsecretsestrogenandprogesteronewhich o Stimulatetheendometrium(uterinelining)tothicken o Preparetheuterusforimplantation o Inhibitthehypothalamus,whichreducesFSHandLH–negativefeedback loop • Onlyabout30%ofimplantationsaresuccesses,mostimportanttimeinthe reproductivecycle • Iftheeggisfertilized,embryoreleaseshormonesthatmaintaintheuterine lining:menstruationdoesnotoccur o Embryonicstageisthefirstthreemonthsofpregnancy SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes o Remaining2stagesarethefetaldevelopmentstage,embryobegins takingonhumancharacteristics • Iftheeggisnotfertilized,thedropinLHshutsdownthecorpusluteumandits hormones;menstruationistriggeredandthehypothalamusandpituitaryforma newfollicle–estrogen/progesteronenolongerinhibitingthis MenstrualCycle • Beginswithovulation;generallyoccursaroundday14 • LHandFHSlevelsspike,whichstimulatesthefollicletobereleasedandtogrow • Thefolliclegrowsandsecretesestrogen;oncethecorpusluteumisformedby thefollicle,itsecretesprogesteroneandestrogen • Estrogenandprogesteronepromotetherapidthickeningoftheuterinewall o Estrogen-lowlevelsinhibitpituitary,highlevelsstimulatehypothalamus o Progesterone–maintainendometrium,highlevelsinhibithypothalamus andpituitary–sharpdropspromotemenstruation • Iftheeggisnotfertilized,theliningissloughedoffandthisiswhatcauses menstrualbleeding Chapter45:PopulationandCommunityEcology Lecturegiven3/31/16 • Populationecologyisconcernedwithchangesinpopulationsizeandfactorsthat regulatepopulationsovertime,suchasimmigrationandemigration o Toomanypeopleonthisearthtomaintainasustainableenvironment SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes • Populationsincreasethroughbirthandimmigrationtoanareaanddecrease throughdeathandemigrationoutofanarea Population–agroupofindividualsofasinglespeciesthatoccupythesamegeneral area;fromareproductiveviewitisagroupofindividualsthatsharecommongenepool Populationdynamics–theinteractionsbetweenthebiotic(living)andabiotic(nonliving) factorscausesvariationinpopulationsizes • Individualsinapopulationrelyonthesameresources,areinfluencedbythe sameenvironmentalfactors,andarelikelytointeractandbreedwitheachother • Populationmaybedescribedbythenumberanddistributionofindividuals • 46.2millionlivinginpovertyintheUS(below$27,000)–mostresourcesare consumedbyrelativelyfewpeopleindevelopedcountries Populationdensity–thenumberofindividualsofaspeciesperunitareaorvolume;i.e. numberofoaktreespersquarekilometerinaforest • Ecologistsuseavarietyofsaplingtechniquestoestimatepopulationdensities, notalwayseasytodetermine • Animalsmovearoundanddensitiesvaryinapopulation’srange,soyoucantbe completelyconfidentinadensitynumber Capture-recapture–samplingmethodthatmakestheassumptionsthatmarkinghasno effectonmortality,markinghasnoeffectonthelikelihoodofbeingcaptured,andthat thereisnoimmigrationoremigrationbetweenthesamplingtimes SarahStewart BIOL1040 Exam3notes Dispersionpattern–thewayindividualsarespacedwithinanarea;canbeclumped, nearlyuniform,orrandom Lifehistorypattern–asetofadaptionsthatinfluencesurvival,fertility,andtheageat firstreproduction;asetofconditionspertainingtoanindividual’sscheduleof reproduction,summarizedinlifetables/survivorshipcurves • Lifetables o Trackage-specificpatterns o Populationdividedintoagecategories o Birthandmortalityratescalculatedforeachagecategory o Eachspecieshasacharacteristiclifespan,notallachieveit • Survivorshipcurves–usedtoplotacohort’sage-specificsurvivalinahabitat o TypeI–highsurvivorshipuntillateinlife,thenalargeincreaseindeath; elephants,humans o TypeII–reflectafairlyconstantdeathrateatallages;lizards,small mammals,largebirds o TypeIII–deathratehighestearlyon,speciesthatproducemanysmall offspringanddolittleparenting;invertebrates

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Textbook: Introduction to Heat Transfer
Edition: 6
Author: Theodore L. Bergman
ISBN: 9780470501962

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The concrete slab of a basement is 11 m long, 8 m wide,