Consider 1.1. (a) If the exposed cold surface of the insulation is at T2 20 C, what is the value of the convection heat transfer coefficient on the cold side of the insulation if the surroundings temperature is Tsur 320 K, the ambient temperature is T 5 C, and the emissivity is 0.95? Express your results in units of W/m2 K and W/m2 C. (b) Using the convective heat transfer coefficient you calculated in part (a), determine the surface temperature, T2, as the emissivity of the surface is varied over the range 0.05 0.95. The hot wall temperature of the insulation remains fixed at T1 30 C. Display your results graphically.
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 April 5, 2016 Interracial Marriage and Changing Racial Boundaries o terms heterogamy: mating with someone of a different age, education, race, ethnicity, gender, religion homogamy: opposite of heterogamy hypergamy: mating with someone of higher social status hypogamy: mating with someone of lower social status o why intermarry preferences: values and attitudes structural opportunities (school, neighborhood, context) third parties (parents, laws) Anti-Miscegenation Laws o became unconstitutional in 1967 Loving v. Virginia o penalties included: felony verdict, jailing, fines, voiding of marriage o regions excluded different races War Brides Act of 1945 o allowed non-Asian spouses and children to come to US o (war brides: wartime marriages between soldiers and foreigners) o racial and ethnic boundaries bright vs. blurred boundaries unambiguous social representation or self identity are unambiguous boundary crossing individuals move from one group to another without changing the boundary boundary blurring individuals’ locations with respect to boundary are ambiguous o ex. bilingual, multinational boundary shifting inclusion/exclusion of groups o likelihood for intermarriage affected by race, ethnicity, gender, nativity (US or foreign born), education, religion o age homogamy prevalent: normative constraints, preferences female hypergamy (males are the older) reasons: maturity, economics, remarriage o theory social exchange prospective partners trade on personal traits on the marriage market men: income, employment, status, power women: sex, appearance, expressiveness, assumed domestic skills “non-white daters gain status by dating any white” preferences and opportunities social context can lead to partner choice social context can lead to a network which can lead to partner choice intergroup contact racial attitudes is directly related to degree of intimate contact between members assimilation adopt cultural patterns, customs, language of the host/majority population intermarriage is the last step of assimilation winnowing dating leads to cohabiting which leads to marriage (potentially) o increasingly selective in the matching process heterogeneous relationships will dissolve, homogenous ones will progress to marriage April 7, 2016 iclicker: compositional shifts: accounts for changes in the amount of time US parents spend with children o the rise in maternal employment, increased educational attainment, increased single parenting Work-Family Balance (or lack thereof) o factors: of increasing female participation in paid labor force (PLF) occupational factors: nature of jobs have changed rural to manufacturing to information and service economic factors: better wages, educated, more female-headed families demographic factors later marriage, fertility decrease, increase in life expectancy women have fewer children, reduction in time-intensive parenting high rates of divorce and separation/reductions in alimony o what about the men % of men in PLF has decreased population is aging, early retirement of baby boomers however there is a growing group of non-employed who aren’t in school o attributes of labor force aging, globally the US isn’t doing so bad fertility is declining increased racial diversity more working women means that increase proportions of parents are in PLF change in household roles o changes in who does the reproductive labor (parents need to work, children need to be raised and socialized) o trends 1990: US has the highest LFPR (labor force participation rate) for women 2010: most other economically developed countries’ are higher o policies that are implemented by governments (not the US) parental leave the right to part-time work equal treatment of part-time workers public childcare expenditures these four have positive effects on the LFPR but increases gender differences the US vs. Europe US: has family and medical act; states that have parental leave generally fund them through disability funds if Europe’s policies were applied in US: o women’s LFPR would increase o men would share the load more, potentially lowering the wage gap US women: more likely to have managerial and professional roles o more likely to have leadership roles o unlike Europe with its greater numbers of part-time female workers US’s issues against these policies o health insurance is private vs. single payer o education is increasingly privately funded o public schools are increasingly privatized o cultural factors: arguments that Americans value children less now cultural values attributed from demographic behaviors: lowered TFR, increased % of women who are childless, later marriage suggests that self actualization is valued greater than child care is this true no o factors: amount of time spent with children increasing selection into parenthood cultural change: defining a “good” parents change in how time is used: housework, leisure, sleep, kids women spend more time with children now than before how schooling o children are more and longer at school o women do less housework o most work part-time