Consider the air-cooled combustion cylinder of 3.160, but instead of imposing a uniform heat flux at the inner surface, consider conditions for which the time-averaged temperature of the combustion gases is Tg 1100 K and the corresponding convection coeffi- cient is hg 150 W/m2 K. All other conditions, including the cylinder/casing contact resistance, remain the same. Determine the heat rate per unit length of cylinder (W/m), as well as the cylinder inner temperature Ti , the interface temperatures T1,i and T1,o, and the fin base temperature Tb. Subject to the constraint that the fin gap is fixed at 2 mm, assess the effect of increasing the fin thickness at the expense of reducing the number of fins
Mona Lisa: Created by Leonardo Da Vinci between 1503-1505 Most famous work known in western art Early years of the 16 century Lisa Gherardini del Giocondo First view in public was in 1797, placed in the Louvre Museum in Paris Was stolen in 1911, and returned 2 years later. During the Middle Ages, the formative period of European culture, art was used in roughly the same sense as craft. Renaissance: Painting, sculpture, and architecture came to be thought of as more elevated forms of art. th th Between late 14 century and early 16 century. Subject Matter: Accurate rendering of the “real” world around us. “Art Mirrors Nature” -Plato “Through art we express our conception of what nature is not” -Picasso You have to tell a lie to tell the truth: A good example of this phrase is Egyptian art. Linear Perspective and Vanishing Point Representational Art: Describes artwork—particularly paintings and sculptures— that is clearly derived from real object sources. Objective, realistic. Made to look like the actual object. Non-Representational Art: Developed from the search for art’s essence in the wake of the challenge presented by photography. Composed of colors and shapes arranged over a flat surface. Naturalistic: How forms are revealed by light and shadow, how bodies reflect an inner structure of bones and muscle, how fabric drapes over bodies and objects, and how gravity makes weight felt. Abstract: Simplified or exaggerated aspects of an actual object. Shapes are simplified shapes in comparison. Embraces a broad range of approaches. Trompe L’oeil: French for “Fool the Eye,” art that is representational and so convincingly lifelike that we can be fooled for a moment into thinking that they are real. Stylized: Describes representational art that conforms to a preset style or set of conventions for depicting the world. Much of the art of ancient Egypt is highly stylized. Style: A characteristic or group of characteristics that we recognize as constant, recurring, or coherent. Categorized by its own appearance. (Style is what distinguishes artists from other skillful makers.) Art is always about something. Art, in fact, is “embodied meaning.” Form: The way a work of art looks. Includes all visual aspects of the work that can be isolated and described, such as size, shape, materials, color, and composition. Content: What a work of art is about. For representational and abstract works, content begins with the objects or events the work depicts, its subject matter. Iconography: Literally “describing images,” involves identifying, describing, and interpreting subject matter in art. An important activity of scholars who study art, and their work helps us understand meanings that we might not be able to see for ourselves. Example: my textbook. Context: Web of connections to the larger world of human culture. Strong ties bind a work of art to the life of its creator, to the tradition it grows from and responds to, to the audience it was made for, and to the society in which it circulated. EGYPT: Principle message – continuity: a seamless span of time reaching back into history and forward into the future. The Sphinx – essence of stability, order, and endurance. Built around 2530 B.C. Egyptian kings ruled absolutely and enjoyed a semi divine status, taking their authority from the sun god, Ra, from whom they were assumed to be descended from. Palette of Narmer – portrays a victory of Upper Egypt, led by Narmer, over those of Lower Egypt When depicting an important personage, Egyptian artists strove to show each part of the body to the best advantage so it could be “read” clearly by the viewer. Re-occurring image: Lower body is profile, torso is full front, head profile, eyes front, and arms shown. Old Kingdom: 2500-2100 B.C. Middle Kingdom: 2100-1600 B.C New Kingdom: 1600-332 B.C. The most famous architectural creation of Egypt – the pyramid Hierarchical Scale was used by the Egyptians a lot to note the importance in their paintings. Size based on importance. Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, came to power in 1353 B.C. Changed his name to Akhenaten and attempted to establish monotheism (belief in one God). His reign is known as the Amarna Period. After Akhenaten’s death, temples to old gods were restored and temples that had been built to Aten were dismantled. Egyptians had buried their most lavish art in royal tombs. It wasn’t until 1922, after many tombs had be robbed of their possessions, that the modern world could assess the full splendor of ancient Egypt. Successor of Akhenaten was his son, Tutankhamun, or King Tut. He was a minor ruler, but his tomb was full of lavish splendor, and filled with gold. Gold wasn’t for mere wealth. It was associated with the life-giving rays of the sun and with eternity itself. The flesh of the gods was believed to be gold, which would never decay. King Tut died around 1323 B.C.