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Consider an opaque horizontal plate that is well insulated

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman ISBN: 9780470501962 111

Solution for problem 12.1 Chapter 12

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

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Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

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Problem 12.1

Consider an opaque horizontal plate that is well insulated on its back side. The irradiation on the plate is 2500 W/m2 , of which 500 W/m2 is reflected. The plate is at 227 C and has an emissive power of 1200 W/m2 . Air at 127 C flows over the plate with a heat transfer convection coefficient of 15 W/m2 K. Determine the emissivity, absorptivity, and radiosity of the plate. What is the net heat transfer rate per unit area?

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Mendelian Genetics  Introduction o Gregor Mendel- 1856-1868 o Characteristics of organisms are controlled by genes o A gene is a portion of the DNA that codes for a given polypeptide chain- protein o Genes control the characteristics display- blonde or brunette o Genetics- the study of how genes control these characteristics and how they are passed from one generation to the next- inheritance o The laws Mendel developed were not widely accepted until about 1900 when 3 other scientists came up with the same results  Thought of a gene as a particle that was passed from parent to offspring o All sexually reproducing organisms are diploid- two sets of chromosomes- 2 sets of genes for each characteristics  Genes and Characteristics o Although each individual has 2 genes for each characteristic there may be several forms of alternative genes in a population o Alleles- alternative forms of genes for each characteristic o A particular combination of alleles present in an organism is the genotype o The way genes express themselves is you phenotype o Homozygous alleles- identical alleles o Often one allele masks the effects of the other allele- dominant o Allele that gets masked- recessive  Recessive traits only express themselves if they are homozygous  Mendel’s Laws of Heredity o Often practical to determine whether a certain phenotype is homo or heterozygous for the dominant allele  The homozygous dominant breeds true o Test cross- useful for plant and animal breeders looking for stock that breeds true o Mendel’s Law of Dominance  When an organism is heterozygous for a given trait the allele that is expressed is said to be dominant and the allele that is masked is recessive o Mendel’s Law of Segregation  When gametes are formed the alleles that control a given trait separate from each other into separate gametes and retain their individuality o Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment  Members of one gene pair separate from each other independently from members of other gene pairs  Probability vs Possibility o Probability- chance of something happening (# of events 1 outcome/ # of possible outcomes)  Monohybrid Crosses o Genetics cross in which a single characteristic is followed from one generation to the next o 5 basic steps whether its mono or dihybrid  Assign a symbol for each allele- capital letter for dominant and lowercase for recessive  Determine the genotype of each parent and indicate a mating (Ee x Ee)  Determine all possible types of gametes each parent can produce and place it in a Punnett square  Determine all gene combinations that can result when these gametes unite  Determine the phenotype of each possible gene combination  Results can be expressed as a ratio- 3:1  This 3:1 ratio is always expected in a monohybrid cross between 2 heterozygous parents  Dihybrid Cross o Genetic cross in which 2 pairs of alleles of 2 characteristics are followed from one generation to the next o Same 5 basic steps from above apply o With this there are 16 possible outcomes  9:3:3:1 ratio  That ratio is always expected when two heterozygous alleles from each parent are crossed  Real world example o So far we have looked at cases that there is a dominant and a recessive allele- but things don’t always work out like that  Some alleles aren’t dominant  Some characteristics are determined by 2 or more alleles  Some characteristics are determined by gene interactions  Some characteristics are inherited differently depending on the sex of the offspring  Some genes control more than one characteristic o Lack of Dominance- in some cases both alleles express themselves  Ex: snapdragon flower color alleles- neither allele is dominant or recessive o Multiple alleles- refers to the fact that some characteristics are determined by 3 or more different alleles- however an individual can only have a max of 2 alleles for a given characteristic  Ex: IA, IB, i- A and B show lack of dominance when they are present in the same person, but both A and B are dominant over the O allele o Polygenic Inheritance  So far each characteristic we’ve looked at were determined by an allele at one locus  Some characteristics are determined by multiple pairs of alleles on the same of different chromosomes  Ex: alleles for skin color are located at a minimum of 3 different loci and the dark allele is dominant at each allele o Pleiotropy- when the gene has more than one effect on the phenotype of the organism- often- sometimes good and bad  Ex: sickle cell anemia o Linkage  Alleles that are located on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together- linkage group  Because of crossing over during meiosis I the closer two genes are together on the same chromosome the more likely they will be inherited together o Sex Linked Genes  Many organisms have autosomes and sex chromosomes  In humans and other animals there are two kinds of sex chromosomes X and Y  Because the Y chromosome is so much smaller than the X chromosome it doesn’t have any of the alleles located on the “extra” portion on the X chromosome  Therefore in males the presence of a single allele on the extra portion of the X chromosome will be expressed whether it is dominant or recessive  Ex: colorblindness and hemophilia- recessive and on the X- more men than women are colorblind and have hemophilia  Sex Influenced gene- autosomal genes who’s expression depends on whether the person is male or female  Ex: gene for baldness- men can be heterozygous, but women have to be homozygous  Sex hormones influence the activity of the genes- on/ off  Environmental Influence on Gene Expression o Specific phenotype is determined not only by genes but also by the environment by which the organization develops o Even 2 organisms with identical genotypes may have different phenotypes  Ex: diet effects growth- twins o Sometimes the physical environment determines if certain genes functions- color and thickness of animal fur

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Chapter 12, Problem 12.1 is Solved
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Textbook: Introduction to Heat Transfer
Edition: 6
Author: Theodore L. Bergman
ISBN: 9780470501962

This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 13 chapters, and 1422 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 12.1 from chapter: 12 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 09/27/17, 04:59PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introduction to Heat Transfer, edition: 6. Since the solution to 12.1 from 12 chapter was answered, more than 295 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Introduction to Heat Transfer was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780470501962. The answer to “Consider an opaque horizontal plate that is well insulated on its back side. The irradiation on the plate is 2500 W/m2 , of which 500 W/m2 is reflected. The plate is at 227 C and has an emissive power of 1200 W/m2 . Air at 127 C flows over the plate with a heat transfer convection coefficient of 15 W/m2 K. Determine the emissivity, absorptivity, and radiosity of the plate. What is the net heat transfer rate per unit area?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 80 words.

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Consider an opaque horizontal plate that is well insulated