Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Introduction To Heat Transfer - 6 Edition - Chapter 13 - Problem 13.107
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Introduction To Heat Transfer - 6 Edition - Chapter 13 - Problem 13.107

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

A row of regularly spaced, cylindrical heating elements

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman ISBN: 9780470501962 111

Solution for problem 13.107 Chapter 13

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780470501962 | Authors: Theodore L. Bergman

Introduction to Heat Transfer | 6th Edition

4 5 1 379 Reviews
Problem 13.107

A row of regularly spaced, cylindrical heating elements (1) is used to cure a surface coating that is applied to a large panel (2) positioned below the elements. A second large panel (3), whose top surface is well insulated, is positioned above the elements. The elements are black and maintained at T1 600 K, while the panel has an emissivity of 2 0.5 and is maintained at T2 400 K. The cavity is filled with a nonparticipating gas and convection heat transfer occurs at surfaces 1 and 2, with and . (Convection at the insulated panel may be neglected.) D (a) Evaluate the mean gas temperature, Tm. (b) What is the rate per unit axial length at which electrical energy must be supplied to each element to maintain its prescribed temperature? (c) What is the rate of heat transfer to a portion of the coated panel that is 1 m wide by 1 m long?

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Econ 202 ~ Chapter 1 ~ 10 Principles of Marco-Economics HOW PEOPLE MAKE DECISIONS 1. People face trade-offs ~ because resources are scarce between alternative items, choices are necessary  Trade-offs between efficiency & equality when grouped into a society  Asks: “What” or “which” to do 2. The true cost of something is what you give up to get it ~ it’s measured in forgone opportunity costs.  Measuring the costs and benefits of giving up something else for an item 3. Rational people think at the margin ~ is decision-making at the edge or at a limit  Intuitively comparing marginal benefits to marginal costs  Asks: “How much of” is a decision at the margin  At the “edge” is measured in one (1) unit  When MB > MC ~ Take Action / When MB < MC ~ Don’t Take Action 4. People respond to incentives ~ induces a person to act (effect & change behavior)  People exploit opportunities to make themselves better off  Something that induces a person to act via a reward or punishment Efficiency ~ is when society gets its most out of its scarce resources. (Size of the pie) Equality ~ is when prosperity is distributed uniformly amongst society’s members. (How the pie is divided) Rationale People ~ are people who systematically and purposefully do the best they can to achieve their objectives. Market Economy ~ is the allocation of resources as many households and many firms interact with each other within the markets. HOW PEOPLE INTERACT 5. Trade can make everyone better off ~ through and because of specialization  Getting a better price from selling one’s product abroad which is produced at home (Export)  Buying other goods more cheaply from abroad than can be produced at home (Import)  People/firms/countries produce goods and services that they are proficient in 6. Markets are usually (mostly) a good way to organize economic activity via a market economy  Markets create efficiency  Acts as an invisible hand even though self-interest(s) is involved  Resources are allocated through the decentralized decisions of many households and many firms as they interact within the market economy (the invisible hand)  Supply curve is related to the marginal cost  Demand curve is the willingness of consumers to pay a given price  Markets move towards equilibrium and then no further adjustments will occur 7. Governments can sometimes improve market outcomes ~ through their 3 policies:  Ensuring and enforcing property rights ~ because people are less inclined to work, produce, invest or purchase if a large portion of their property is stolen  Intervening in and correcting Market failures ~ market failure is when the production or consumption of a good or service affects bystanders 1. When there’s inefficient allocation of resources because of market power and dead-weight loss created by monopolies or other factors 2. When Externalities effect the well-being of others  Negative externality is pollution  Positive externalities are bees (pollination) and education  Promoting equality over efficiency 1. Taxes or welfare policies can change how the economic pie is divided HOW THE ECONOMY AS A WHOLE WORKS There is a huge variation in living standards across countries over time. Average income in the richest countries is 10 times more than poor countries. The US standard of living is 10 times bigger than it was 100 years ago. 8. A country’s standard of living depends on its ability to produce goods and services  Productivity is the ultimate source of living standards and depends upon the equipment, skills and technology available to workers  Labor unions and competition from abroad has less of an effect 9. Prices rise when government prints too much money  Inflation is almost always caused by excessive growth in the quantity of money which in turn causes the value of money to fall. The faster the government creates money, the greater the inflation rate. (In the long-run which is greater than 3 years) 10.Society faces a short-run (1 to 2 year period) trade-off between inflation and unemployment  Business cycle ~ fluctuations in economic activity; such as, employment, production and growth  Inflation occurs when money supply increases and unemployment is down

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 13, Problem 13.107 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Introduction to Heat Transfer
Edition: 6
Author: Theodore L. Bergman
ISBN: 9780470501962

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

A row of regularly spaced, cylindrical heating elements