In Exercises 5 and 6, find the value that must have if the given limit statements hold.
▯ Terrestrial Vs. Jovian ▯ Terrestrial Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars o close to the sun o small o mostly rocky o high density slow rotation o few moons o no rings o heavy elements ▯ Jovian Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune o Far from the sun o Large o Mostly gaseous o Low density o Fast rotation o Many moons o Rings o Light elements ▯ Origin of Pluto A relatively large member of a class of objects in the outer reaches of the solar system, apart of the Kuiper Belt. ▯ Questions What are some of the smaller objects, or debris, found in the solar system o Comets, asteroids, and meteoroids What is the main reason that we study these smaller objects What information do they contain that the planets and moons do not o Solar system debris is un-evolved which gives direct evidence of conditions during solar system formation. ▯ Comet Structure Nucleus-ball of ice and dust Coma- cloud of gas and dust around nucleus Tail- can have both ion and dust trails o Tails always point away from the sun ▯ Solar System Formation The solar system started out as a giant cloud of cold gas that collapsed under its own gravity The solar system is flat due to conservation of angular momentum Condensation theory o Dust grains act as condensation nuclei: gas atoms stick to them, growth of first clumps of matter. Also radiates heat to help to cool gas which leads to faster gravitational collapse o Accretion: clumps collide and stick, making larger clumps. Eventually small moon sized objects are formed, planetesimals o Gravity enhanced accretion: objects now have significant gravity. Mutual attraction accelerates accretion. Bigger objects grow faster, leading to a few planet sized objects. ▯ Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is Solar radiation absorbed by the earth, atmosphere traps heat The greenhouse effect is different on Venus because water evaporated from the oceans into the atmosphere, making the effect more efficient o Temperatures rise causing more evaporation, leading to the complete evaporation of the oceans o The evaporation causes the thick atmosphere The type of EM radiation the greenhouse gasses in our atmosphere trap are Infrared The ozone protects us from UV EM radiation The Interior of the Earth Closer to the core the temperature increases along with the density Chemical composition changes the deeper into the earth you go Information is obtained about the earths structure and interior by a network of seismic waves that bend when they encounter changes in density S waves are unable to travel in liquid Measurement of seismic waves tells about density and which layers are solid or molten ▯ The Tides Tides are caused by the moon and not the sun because it is closer The highest tides are seen during the new and full moon, while the lowest tides are seen during the quarters The Lunar Surface Large dark and featureless areas: maria, are the more recent lava flows Lighter areas at a higher elevation are the highlands, older due to more craters Many craters due to meteoroid impacts are the only important source of erosion ▯ Impact theory Early in Solar System, when many large planetesimals around, a Mars-sized object hit the forming Earth, ejecting material from the mantle which went into orbit around Earth and coalesced to form Moon. Computer simulations suggest this is plausible. ▯ Properties of the planets Retrograde motion is exhibited by Venus Direction and rate of a planets rotation is determined by the Doppler shift using reflected radio waves to determine the line of sight Doppler shifts Without the earths rotation, there would be no magnetic field ▯ Anomalous rotation of Venus Extremely slow, day longer than the year Retrograde Most likey due to a collistion ▯