The n 26 observations on escape time given in Exercise 36 of Chapter 1 give a sample mean and sample standard deviation of 370.69 and 24.36, respectively. a. Calculate an upper confidence bound for population mean escape time using a confidence level of 95%. b. Calculate an upper prediction bound for the escape time of a single additional worker using a prediction level of 95%. How does this bound compare with the confidence bound of part (a)? c. Suppose that two additional workers will be chosen to participate in the simulated escape exercise. Denote their escape times by X27 and X28, and let Xnew denote the average of these two values. Modify the formula for a PI for a single x value to obtain a PI for Xnew, and calculate a 95% two-sided interval based on the given escape data.
Classification of Joints 1. two methods of classification A. functional classification is based on range of motion of the joint a. synarthrosis- immovable b. amphiarthrosis- slightly movable c. diarthrosis- highly moveable B. structural classification relies on the anatomical organization of the joint a. bony b. synovial c. fibrous d. cartilaginous 2. synarthrosis: immovable joints A. are very strong B. edges of bones may touch or interlock C. four types of synarthrosis joints: a. sutures b. gomphosis c. synchondrosis d. synostosis 3. suture A. bones interlocked B. are bound by dense fibrous connective tissue C. example: skull 4. gomphosis A. fibrous connections (periodontal ligament) B. example: binds teeth into sockets 5. synchondrosis A. is a rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bones a. epiphyseal cartilage of long bones b. example: between vertebral sternal (true) ribs and the sternum 6. synostosis A. fused bones, immovable a. metopic suture of skull b. example: epiphyseal plate 7. amphiarthrosis A. more movable than synarthrosis B. stronger than freely movable joints C. two types of amphiarthrosis joints a. syndesmosis: distal joint between the tibia and fibula b. symphysis: separated by fibrocartilage (pubic symphysis) 8. synovial joints or diarthrosis A. moveable joints at ends of long bones B. within articular capsules, lined with the synovial membrane which produces synovial fluid C. synovial fluid a. contains slipper proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts b. functions: lubrication, nutrient distribution and shock absorption Movements 1. three types of dynamic motion A. linear (gliding) B. angular C. rotation 2. planes or axes of dynamic motion A. monoaxial (one plane) B. biaxial (two planes) C. triaxial (three planes 3. types of synovial movements A. gliding movement a. two surfaces sliding past each other I. example: carpal and tarsal bones 4. angular movement A. flexion: decreases the angle between articulating bones, anterior- posterior plane B. extension: increases the angle between articulating bones, anterior- posterior plane C. hyperextension: extension past the anatomical position D. abduction: moving away from the anatomical position, frontal plane E. adduction: moving it back to the anatomical position, frontal plane F. circumduction: rotating your arm in a loop 5. rotation: direction of rotation from anatomical position A. left or right rotation: describe limb rotation by reference to the longitudinal axis of the trunk B. medial rotation or inward rotation C. lateral rotation: reverse movement D. pronation: turning posteriorly E. supination: turning anteriorly 6. special movements A. inversion: twisting movement of the foot that turns the sole inward B. eversion: opposite movement C. dorsiflexion: is flexion at the ankle join and elevation of the sole D. plantar flexion: opposite movement, extends the ankle joint and elevates the heel E. opposition: movement of the thumb toward the surface of the palm or pads of the other fingers F. reposition: movement that returns the thumb and finger from opposition G. protraction: a moving body part anteriorly in the horizontal plane, pushing forward H. retraction: reverse movement, moving anteriorly, pulling back I. elevation: closing your mouth J. depression: opening your mouth K. lateral flexion: occurs when vertebral column bends to the side 7. synovial joint functions A. lubrication B. nutrient distribution C. shock absorption 8. gliding joints A. flattened or slightly curved surface B. limited motion (nonaxial) 9. hinge joints A. angular motion in a single plain (monaxial) 10. condylar joints A. oval articular face within a depression B. motion in two planes (biaxial) 11. saddle joints A. two concave, straddled (biaxial) 12. pivot joints A. rotation only (monaxial) 12. ball-and-socket joints A. round articular face in a depression (triaxial) Intervertebral Joints 1. intervertebral joints A. C2- L5 spinal vertebrae articulate: a. at inferior and superior articular processes b. between adjacent vertebral bodies 2. intervertebral pads A. fibrocartilage pad, separate vertebral bodies a. annulus fibrosus: tough outer layer, attaches disc to vertebrae b. nucleus puplosus: elastic, gelatinous core, absorbs shocks 3. intervertebral ligaments A. bind vertebrae together and stabilize the vertebral column 4. six intervertebral ligament A. anterior longitudinal ligaments: connects anterior bodies B. posterior longitudinal ligament: connects posterior bodies C. ligamentum flavum: connects laminae D. interspinous ligament: connect spinous processes E. supraspinous ligament: connects tips of spinous processes (C7 to sacrum) F. ligamentum nuchae: continues supraspinous ligament (C7 to skull) 5. damage to intervertebral discs A. herniated discs- 4 stages a. final stage: nucleus puplosus breaks through annulus fibrosus, leakage occurs b. presses on spinal cord and nerves The shoulder joint 1. the shoulder joint A. also called the glenohumeral joint B. allows more motion than any other joint C. is the least stable D. supported by skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments 2. socket of the shoulder joint A. glenoid labrum a. deepens socket of glenoid cavity b. fibrocartilage lining c. extends past the bone 3. processes of the shoulder joint A. acromion (clavicle) and coracoid process (scapula) a. project laterally, superior to the humerus b. helps stabilize the joint 4. shoulder ligaments A. glenohumeral B. coracohumeral C. coracoacromial D. coracoclavicular E. acromioclavicular 5. shoulder separation 6. shoulder dislocation 7. shoulder muscles or rotator cuff –SITS 8. shoulder bursae A. subacromial B. subcoracoid C. subdeltoid D. subscapular The elbow joint 1. the elbow joint A. articulates with involving humerus, radius and ulna 2. joints of the elbow A. largest joint B. trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of the ulna C. limited movement 3. humeroradial joint A. smaller joint B. capitulum of humerus and head of radius 4. supporting structures of the elbow A. biceps brachii muscle B. elbow ligaments a. radial collateral b. annular c. ulnar collateral The hip joint 1. the hip joint A. also called coxal joint, wide range of motion 2. structures of the hip joint A. which extend by fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum 3. ligaments of the hip joint A. iliofemoral B. pubofemoral C. ischiofemoral D. transverse acetabular E. ligamentum teres The knee joint 1. articulations of the knee joint A. two femur- tibia articulates a. at medial and lateral condyle B. one between patella and patellar surface of femur C. medial and lateral menisci a. fibrocartilage pads, cushion and stabilize joint b. give lateral support