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In Exercises 1 and 2, plot the points whose coordinates

College Algebra | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781439048610 | Authors: Richard N. Aufmann, Vernon C. Barker, Richard D. Nation ISBN: 9781439048610 198

Solution for problem 2.1.2 Chapter 2

College Algebra | 7th Edition

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College Algebra | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781439048610 | Authors: Richard N. Aufmann, Vernon C. Barker, Richard D. Nation

College Algebra | 7th Edition

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Problem 2.1.2

In Exercises 1 and 2, plot the points whose coordinates are given on a Cartesian coordinate system. (-3, -5), (-4, 3), (0, 2), (-2, 0)

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Exam 3 Notes: Set 2 Digestive System • Animals are heterotrophic – ingest feeders • Animals needs food for survival, maintenance, growth, & reproduction • The most amount of food energy is needed for reproduction • Gut Tracts: 2 Types 1. Blind Gut § No cavity between gut and body wall § One opening § Least advanced § Ex: jellyfish 2. Tube-Within-A-Tube Arrangement § Advanced form § Flow through digestive tube § Fluid-filled body cavity (coelom) between the gut and body wall § Separate openings (one at each end) § Allows animal to be larger as well as eat larger amounts of food • Hydrolases – digestive enzymes that require water to help speed up chemical reactions o Carbohydrases – break down carbohydrates (sugars) o Proteases – break down proteins o Lipases – break down lipids o Nucleases – break down nucleic acids • Basic Functions of Digestive System o Digestion – breakdown of large molecules into smaller forms; combo of chemical and mechanical means; requires water and enzymes o Absorption – the uptake of digested food by cells lining the gut tract o Transport – moving food through the gut tract o Elimination – formation and excretion of fecal matter; removal of undigested and unabsorbed materials • Alimentary Canal – the digestive tract/tube; has a distinct mouth at one end and an anus at the other end; lined with simple epithelium and smooth muscle o Region of Reception: § Buccal Cavity - the mouth and accessory structures • Both chemical and mechanical digestion occur within the buccal cavity • Jaws, teeth, & tongue move food around and break it into smaller pieces • Salivary glands – saliva (spit) glands that contain water and enzymes called amylase that break down sugars • Pharynx – the back of the mouth cavity; the point that the digestive system and respiratory system cross paths o Region of Conduction – conducting food away from the mouth cavity § Esophagus – tube leading from the mouth cavity to the stomach; lined with simple epithelium and outside of that smooth muscle § Smooth muscle responsible for moving food through entire Alimentary Canal because gravity cannot push food down • Peristalsis – rhythmic, wavelike contractions pushing food through o Region of Storage and Digestion: § Stomach – the storage organ that holds food long enough for it to be more effectively broken down; found mostly in vertebrates • A stretchable sac • Rugae – inner lining of stomach (simple epithelium) that create folds when stomach is empty • The wall of the stomach is made of 3 layers of smooth muscle with cells running in different directions • Churning movements of stomach mixes food around so everything is exposed to enzymes • Enzymes secreted in stomach for chemical digestion o Protein breakdown begins • Pits and glands associated with inner lining; necessary for secretion o Mucous cells – secrete mucous for moisture; water needed for enzymes to break down food o Chief cells – secrete pepsinogen o Parietal cells – secrete hydrochloric acid o Pepsinogen + HCl à pepsin o Pepsin – an enzyme that provides for the breakdown of proteins • Has minimal amount of absorption; can only absorb things that are lipid soluble (ex: aspirin, alcohol) o Region of Terminal Digestion and Absorption § If it hasn’t been absorbed by this point, it becomes waste § Small Intestine – at the end of stomach; responsible for majority of food absorption (about 99%) • Digestion of lipids and nucleic acids started and completed here • Digestion of carbs and proteins continued and completed here • About 8x the height of the organism (if you are 5ft tall, you have about 40ft of small intestine) • Has a small diameter • The longer the small intestine, the more absorption it does • 3 Regions of Small Intestine: o Duodenum – beginning; many secretions in this region o Jejunum – middle o Ileum – end • How Does Most of Absorption Occur Here o Lined with simple epithelium o Has smooth muscle and blood vessels to help move and transport o Surface lining modifications to increase absorption: § Plicae circulares – folds of the inner lining; increases surface areas 2-3x § Villi – finger-like projections into cavity; increases surface area 10x § Microvilli – folding of plasma membrane of cells lining each villus; increases surface area 20x o Region of Water Absorption and Concentration of Solids § Large Intestine – absorbs water and forms fecal matter • About 1.5 meters (much shorter than small intestine) • Single layer of epithelial tissue for water uptake • About 1400ml/nearly 1.5L is absorbed every day • Compacts solids to eliminate waste • Some water lost in order to get ride of waste, but most is absorbed; 75% of waste is water • Waste Composition: o 75% water o 5% inorganic substances o 5% fat o 7% undigested protein, bile, and dead cells o 8% fiber/cellulose/roughage § Anus – the opening to the outside of the body o Cloaca – some vertebrates (all birds & egg laying mammals) have this instead of an anus; a chamber receiving the contents of urinary, digestive, and reproductive tract • Other Organs Associated with Digestive System (but not part of Alimentary Canal) o Pancreas – small gland that has a duct leading to the duodenum; secretes juices that helps with digestion o Liver – produces bile which is absolutely necessary for breakdown of large fat molecules o Gall Bladder – stores the bile and releases it into the duodenum • Carbohydrates à polysaccharides à mono & disaccharides • Proteins à polypeptides à amino acids • Fats à glycerol and fatty acids • Nucleic Acids à nucleotides

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 2, Problem 2.1.2 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: College Algebra
Edition: 7
Author: Richard N. Aufmann, Vernon C. Barker, Richard D. Nation
ISBN: 9781439048610

College Algebra was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781439048610. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 9 chapters, and 4425 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: College Algebra, edition: 7. Since the solution to 2.1.2 from 2 chapter was answered, more than 287 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “In Exercises 1 and 2, plot the points whose coordinates are given on a Cartesian coordinate system. (-3, -5), (-4, 3), (0, 2), (-2, 0)” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 25 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 2.1.2 from chapter: 2 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 01/02/18, 08:47PM.

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In Exercises 1 and 2, plot the points whose coordinates