Health The body mass index (BMI) of a person is a measure of the persons ideal body weight. The table below shows the BMI for different weights for a person 5 feet 6 inches tall. Weight (lb) BMI110 17120 19125 20135 21140 22145 23150 24 Weight (lb) BMI160 25170 27180 29190 30200 32205 33215 34a. Compute the linear regression equation for these data. b. On the basis of the model, what is the estimated BMI for a person 5 feet 6 inches tall whose weight is 158 pounds?
Wednesday, April 20, 2016 Week 10 Associative Learning (Conditioning) - There is a suggestion that learning concepts are linked to motivated behavior Learned Motives - There are three types of learned motives: Classical Conditioning, Operant / Instrumental Conditioning, and Observational Learning Classical Conditioning - An example of this would be how I sprayed Professor Magalis with a water bottle most of the time I read the word “board” from a list. Now the word board causes him to rapidly blink his eyes and ﬂinch • Reﬂexes are associated with new stimuli - Pavlov is only one example of this: he studied dogs and their salivation pattern, even surgical suturing a ﬁstula in the dog’s mouths to collect saliva! • The most well known of his research examples is the dog salivating to a bell. He would start a metronome anytime he would feed his dogs, and the smell of food would make them salivate; over time the dogs would begin to salivate at the sound of the bell alone, having associated the metronome ticking with food - The original stimulus of the spray to the eyes is known as the unconditional stimulus, which caused the unconditional response of blinking and ﬂinching. - The neutral stimulus of the word “board” presents an orienting response, or simply capturing some attention. - The neutral stimulus is then paired with the spray to the eyes, or unconditional stimulus, and the combination resulted in the blinking or unconditional response - IF AND ONLY IF the word “board” is presented alone (without the spray) and it produces a partial blink or startle, only then would we state that classical conditioning has occurred. 1 Wednesday, April 20, 2016 - Eventually the neutral stimulus becomes a predictor of something which elicits a response, therefore the “neutral stimulus" is renamed as a “conditional reﬂex”, which elicits the “conditional response”. • Note: When the association is not practiced over time, then the conditional stimulus will produce a weaker and weaker conditional response, a process known as extinction • When Professor Magalis ﬂinched to the word “hoard”, and other words rhyming with “board”, we know this as a generalization of stimulus. In other words, the conditional response is associated with similar things which become weak stimuli for the conditional response. - Remember, NEUTRAL STIMULI DOES NOT DO NOTHING! It is attention grabbing, eliciting an orienting response Operant / Instrumental Conditioning - Reinforcement / Punishment motivates behavior - Behavior is altered by its consequences - The consequences of a response motivate the future probability of that response - Example Used: Potty training. In particular, our Professor’s Winnie the Pooh potty from infancy • In this scenario, the potty is dubbed the discriminative stimulus • The discriminative behavior can then elicit a response - The proper toilet training behavior, known as the operant • This then leads to praise (a positive reinforcer), which increases the frequency of the response which again increases the frequency of praise 2