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III. I. Phylum Magnoliophyta Answers to quiz questions in slide notes Angiosperm Phylogeny Today: Vascular Plants with Seeds and Flowers This lab: Phylum Magnoliophyta Cycads Ginkgos Pines Welwitschia Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Pinophyta Gnetophyta Monocots Eudicots Angiosperm Overview • Make up 95% of land plant diversity • Evolutionary innovations: – The Carpel: Protects gametophyte stage, enclosures of the seed within a fruit – Corolla: Made of petals. Attracts pollinating insects – Fruits: Dispersal (much more on fruits next class) – Timing of flowering: dependent on day length or weather (after cold period) - synchronized • Promotes simultaneous flowering of all individuals • Increases chances of out-crossing (pollen being transferred between individuals; as opposed to self-pollination) Angiosperm Anatomy • Flower Parts – Pistil – Stamen – Corolla – Calyx – Receptacle Angiosperm Anatomy • Flower Parts – Pistil • Stigma • Style • Ovary Types of Pistils Cross section Angiosperm Overview • Flower Parts – Stamen • Anther • Filament Angiosperm Overview • Flower Parts – Corolla • A whorl of petals Petal Angiosperm Overview • Flower Parts – Calyx • A whorl of sepals Sepals Angiosperm Overview • Flower Parts – Receptacle • Place of attachment for other parts Angiosperm Overview • Life cycle – Sporophytedominant – Gametophytesmall, dependenton sporophyte • Within ovule, female gametophyte formed from megaspore mother cell (megasporocyte) – Meiosis produces 4 megaspores (3 disintegrate, one functional) – Megaspore divides into egg cell, two synergids (together these are the egg apparatus), and two polar nuclei, and 3 antipodals (8 cells total) • Male gametophyte (pollen) develops from microspores – Consists of 2 cells: tube cell (eventually grows pollen tube) and generative cell (divides to form two sperm cells) Pollination and Endosperm Formation Pollen lands on stigma and germinates. Tube cell grows down through the style toward the ovules. The sperm cells follow. – One sperm nucleus joins with egg nucleus to form a 2N zygote = Fertilization – The other sperm nucleus fuses with the polar nuclei to produce 3N Endosper= Double fertilization Angiosperm Taxonomy Dicots Monocots Seed (cotyledon = 2 cotyledons 1 cotyledon seed leaves) Perianth Parts Multiples of 4 or 5 Multiples of 3 Leaf Branching network Parallel veins of veins Vascular Bundles Ring-shaped Scattered in Stem From Stern Table 8.1 Angiosperm Taxonomy Today’s Lab • Today: Flower & Life Cycle Today’s Flower genera are Lillium (lily) and Chrysanthemums Sketch and carefully describe the pistil and ovules. Next labs will examine other aspects of Angiosperm anatomy – Fruits & embryology – Roots, stems & leaves Angiosperm Wrap-up Stigma Style Pistil Ovary Anther Stamen Filament • What is the Dominant Stage of the life cycle – Sporophyte • One sperm nucleus joins with egg nucleus to form a 2N zygote is… – Fertilization • Double Fertilization is when the other sperm nucleus fuses with the polar (central) nuclei to produce: – 3N Endosperm • What is the function of the endosperm – Nourishes for the developing sporophyte Compound or Simple Pistil Compound Carpel Ovule • The male gametophyte is known as … – Pollen (after growing pollen tube and making sperm) • Pollen develops from _____ and is released by the _____. – Microspores, Anthers • The female gametophyteis formed from the … – Megaspore mother cell (megasporocyte) Quiz - Angiosperms All Fungi Tree of Life (AFTOL)– 5 phyla Basidiospores Dollipore septum Clamp connections Ascospores Basidiomycota Dikaryotic stage Septate mycelium Ascomycota Loss of flagella Glomeromycota Ancestral traits Zygomycota Chitin Glycogen Chytridiomycota Posterior flagellum Animalia This Lab Kingdom Protista Archeplastida Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Land Rhizopus Morels Mushrooms Kingdom GreenAlgae Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Protista Chlorophyta Plants Animalia True Fungi Characteristics • Absorb Nutrition (heterotrophs) • Cell wall: glycan and chitin • Store food as glycogen – link Fungi to Animals • Variety of life styles – Saprotrophs (digest OM) – Pathogens/parasites – Mutualistic symbiosis (in roots of plants) mycorrizhal – Fantastic spore formers Fungi Reproduction Terms • Plasmogamy: fusion of cell membrane and cytoplasm • Karyogamy: fusion of two nucei VersusFertilization :Incontrasttothecellfusion(plasmogamy)thattakes placeinlowereukaryotes,duringfertilizationthespermfuseswiththeouter membraneoftheoocyteandinjectsthenucleusandcentriole.Mitochondriaand othercomponentsofthespermneverentertheoocyte Primitive True Fungi • Coenocytic – Lack regular septation (single cells or the tissues are not divided into individual cells) • Lack dikaryotic phase (two non-identical nuclei within each cell) • Phylum Chytridiomycota – Example - Spizellomyces • Phylum Zygomycota – Example - Rhizopus stolonifer(bread mold) Phylum Chytridiomycota Flagellated, coenocytic Saprobes and parasites Use organic compounds to Zoosporeof Allomyces sp. breakdown food Zoosporangiaof Allomyces arbuscula Phylum Zygomycota - conjugating fungi General characteristics: Conjugationoftwo gametangia, forming a zygospore. A zygosporebetween the suspensor cells Coenocytic– septa lack pores unlike asco- and basidiomycetes. (aseptate) Asexual sporangia produce mitotic spores,germinating zygosporangium produces (copies of) meiotic products . An asexual sporangium of Absidia corymbifera. Phylum Zygomycota- the conjugating fungi- life cycle More Advanced True Fungi • Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) – Largest Fungi Phylum – Haploid stage dominant – Sexual reproduction not necessary • Conidia= Reproductive Structures • Conidiophores make spores – Example – Peziza (s), Penicillium (as),Aspergillus(as) and morels (s) s = sexual, meiosporic as = asexual, mitosporic Phylum Ascomycota- the sac fungi Naked asci of Taphrina deformans Perithecium ofDaldinia sp. Cleistothecium ofErysiphe sp. Apothecium of Aleuria aurentia Phylum Ascomycota - the sac fungi More Advanced True Fungi • Basidiomycota – 2ndlargest Fungi group – Sexual Reproduction common • Asexual also occurs, but rarely • Meiosis in basidiophores produce haploid Basidiospores – Dikaryon stage dominant – Examples – Coprinus, portabella and everything you think of as a‘mushroom Basidiomycete Macrofungi- life cycles Youtube clip of Basidiomycota life cycle https://www.youtube.com/watchv=Nwj_g0dJO2A This Lab • Examine various slides and specimens • Know fungi life cycles • Know evolutionary characteristics True fungi: wrap -up • What does the term “dikaryotic” mean – Having two nuclei (n + n) • Name the “spiky ball” – Zygosporangium • What are attached to the “spiky ball” – Suspensor cells True fungi: wrap -up • True fungi obtain food by digesting it outside the cell, then taking in the nutrients, known as – Absorptivenutrition or heterotrophy • Yeasts and molds (e.g. Aspergillus and Penicilliu) belong to which phylum – Ascomycota What does “coenocytic” mean Which phyla are coenocytic Phylum Ascomycota Dominant Stage -Haploid Phylum Basidiomycota Dominant Stage -Dikaryotic Fungi Tree of Life – 5 phyla Basidiospores Dollipore septum Clamp connections Ascospores Basidiomycota Dikaryotic stage Septate mycelium Ascomycota Loss of flagella Glomeromycota Cell walls Spore formation Zygomycota Chytridiomycota Chitin Glycogen Posterior flagellum Animalia Roots, Stems & Leaves Roots • Purpose – Water and mineral absorption, anchoring – Modifications • Housing for mycorrhizal fungi (mutualism: plants receive nutrients (nitrogen); fungi receive carbohydrates) Ectomycorrhiza between Pinus and Amanita What is a mycorrhiza Close association between the plant root and the fungus . Plants may be wrapped into a fungal tissue (ectomycorrhiza)or intracellularly colonized Hartig net (endomycorrhiza). Fungus Interface Plant Arbuscule Endomycorrhiza (AM) between Allium and Glomus Ectomycorrhiza between Pinus and Amanita What is a mycorrhiza Interfaces- sites of resource exchange. Arbuscules – branched fungi penetrates cortical cells. Hartig net Fungus Hartig net- plant cortical cells Interface wrapped into fungal tissue. Arbuscule Plant Endomycorrhiza (AM) between Allium and Glomus Roots • Purpose – Water and mineral absorption – Modifications • Storage – (sweet potato) Roots • Purpose – Water and mineral absorption – Modifications • Additional stem support (prop roots on corn, sunflowers, & figs) Roots • Purpose – Water and mineral absorption – Modifications • Aeration (‘cypress knees’) Root Structures • Root hair – Think trichome – single celled extension of the root epidermis; nutrient acquisition • Region of maturation • Region of elongation • Region of cell division • Apical meristem • Root Cap Root Structures • Stele Siphonostele- ring of vascular tissue – Innermost part of root – Where vascular tissue is found (xylem and phloem) • Pericycle – Outermost layer of stele Monocot cells Protostele - solid core of vascular tissue – Produces lateral roots • Organization of stele is different in monocots and dicots Dicot Monocot Root Cross Section (Stern Figure 5.3) Dicot Root Cross Section (Stern Figure 5.5) Stems • Purpose – Support the leaves and flowers – Nutrient transport • Xylem (water up) and phloem (nutrients up & down) Epidermis Cortex Pith Phloem Xylem Monocot stem Dicot stem Stems • Modifications – Storage (cacti, onion, potato) – Rhizomes (horizontal stems that help spread plant growth away for the main plant), ex. - grass Monocot Stem Dicot Stem Secondary Growth • Tips of roots and stems exhibit primary growth (elongation of tips) – Via apical meristems Root Stem Secondary Growth • Tips of roots and stems exhibit primary growth (elongation of tips) – Via apical meristems • Secondary growth is the increase in girth or diameter of stems and roots – Via lateral meristems (2 types) • Ray initials (transport water and nutrients radially) • Fusiform initials – produce xylem and phloem, transports water and nutrient up and down) – Also called vascular cambium • Phloem always to outside • Xylem always to inside (Dicot) Leaves • Photosyntheticpart of plant – Capture sun energy to create sugars • Veins contain xylem and phloem • Modifications – Spines – Colorful accents to flowers (bracts of poinsettia and indian paintbrush) – Nutrient acquisition (Venus Fly Trap) Leaf Structures Leaf Structures This Lab • Examine roots, stems and leaves • Know modifications of above • Be able to distinguish between monocot and dicot roots and stems • Describe the location, purpose and structures involved in apical and lateral growth Wrap Up • In what region of the root would you find root hairs forming – Region of maturation • What is in the center of a dicot stem – Pith • What type of stem is this – Monocot • Where does most photosynthesis occur in leaves – Palisade mesophyll • What is the outer layer of a leaf called – Epidermis • What allows for gas exchange in leaves – Stomata Kingdom Fungi A look ahead (Objectives). • KingdomFungi in the tree of life • The five phyla in Kingdom Fungi and their placement in All Fungi Tree of Life • Life cycles for Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota • Sexual and asexual cycles, ploidy levels in the life cycles. All Fungi Tree of Life (AFTOL) – 5 phyla Basidiospores Dollipore septum Clamp connections Ascospores Basidiomycota Dikaryotic stage Septate mycelium Ascomycota Loss of flagella Glomeromycota Zygomycota Ancestral traits Chitin Glycogen Chytridiomycota Posterior flagellum Animalia Phylum Chytridiomycota What are the chytrids Flagellated, coenocytic Saprobes and parasites Zoosporeof Allomyces sp. Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis - infamous amphibian killer Zoosporangiaof Allomyces arbuscula Phylum Zygomycota- the conjugating fungi- life cycle Haploid – 1n Dikaryon – n+n Diploid – 2n Phylum Zygomycota - conjugating fungi General characteristics Conjugation of two gametangia - zygospore. A zygosporebetween the suspensor cells Coenocytic – septa lack pores unlike asco- and basidiomycetes. Asexual sporangia produce mitotic spores,germinating zygosporangium produces (copies of) meiotic products . Gametangium – gamete producing organ An asexual sporangium of Absidia corymbifera. Phylum Zygomycota - the conjugating fungi- life cycle – + Phylum Glomeromycota – important plant mutualists 9 out of 10 plants for arbuscular mycorrhizas Plants give carbon and receive nutrients in return Reproduce asexually throughblastic Mycorrhizal structures, development of the hyphal tip to produce arbuscules and vesicles in a Glomerospores colonized oniAllium) root. Phylum Glomeromycota– important plant mutualists Functional mutualism: Fungus Host P (N) uptake from soil =====> Improved host P (N) uptake Production of growth hormones=====> Improved growth C depleted zone close to roots=====> Fewer pathogens Growthof the fungus <===== Photosynthates Character evolution in the fungal clade Basidiospores Dollipore septum Clamp connections Ascospores Basidiomycota Dikaryotic stage Septate mycelium Ascomycota Loss of flagella Glomeromycota Zygomycota Ancestral traits Chitin Glycogen Chytridiomycota Posterior flagellum Animalia Phylum Ascomycota- the sac fungi Naked asci of Taphrina deformans Perithecium ofDaldinia sp. Cleistothecium ofErysiphe sp. Apothecium of Aleuria aurentia Phylum Ascomycota - the sac fungi - generalized life • Asexual cycle • Sexual cycle • Ascoma • Gametangia - antheridium and ascogonium - the modified hyphae that deliver and receive haploid nuclei. • Ascogeneous hyphae develops to asci Ascomycota Life Cycle Phylum Ascomycota - the sac fungi - generalized life • Asexual cycle – mitospores = conidiospores • Sexual cycle– ascospores within ascus within an ascoma Basidiomycota- the filamentous fungi Include “mushrooms”, yeast, puffballs, stinkhorns, rusts, smuts…… Basidiomycete Macrofungi- life cycles Wrap up • What are the 5 phyla we looked at today – Chytidiomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota • Which of these have flagellated sperm – C, Z, and G Wrap up • What are the characteristics of Fungi – Spore formation for reproduction – Extracellular digestion of decomposed material – Cell wall made of chitin – Sexual (and some asexual) reproduction Wrap up • The process in which the cytoplasms of the two gametes in fungi fuse is called _______ – Plasmogamy • The process in which the two nuclei within the gametangium fuse is called ________ – Karyogamy Wrap up • The dominant stage of the Ascomycota life cycle is _______ – Haploid • The dominant stage of the Basidiomycota life cycle is ______ – Dikaryotic Wrap up • Which phylum is associated with mycorrhizae – Glomeromycota • In what form do fungi store their food – Glycogen Undergraduate Research • Looking for a student interested in genetics and physiology • Immediate needs – PCR, DNA Fragment Alignment for conservation genetics project • Future work – Physiological and biochemical techniques (ELISA, enzyme activity, metabolic performance trials) • If interested, please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org Embryology, Seeds & Fruits Angiosperm Taxonomy Dicots Monocots Seed (cotyledon = 2 cotyledons 1 cotyledon seed leaves) Perianth Parts Multiples of 4 or 5 Multiples of 3 Leaf Branching network Parallel veins of veins Vascular Bundles Ring-shaped Scattered in Stem From Stern Table 8.1 Angiosperm Quiz Questions 2 • What is the ploidy of the endosperm formed during double fertilization – 3N • Why – https://www.youtube.com/watchv=Gq8NWh9 8wQs Angiosperm Quiz Question 5 • How many megaspores are produced via meiosis from the megaspore mother cell (megasporocyte) – 4 • Why – Megasporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce 4 megaspores à 3 degenerate, 1 remains – The remaining megaspore undergoes __3__ rounds of mitosis to produce 8 nuclei known as the megagametophyte a) b) Fruits Fruitsimprovethedispersalofseeds Animaldispersal viaeating(berries) viabarbs(burdockanddevil’sclaw) Winddispersal ‘wings’ orothermodificationsforwinddispersal Water-dispersal seedsarebuoyant(coconut) SeeAtlasOutlineonp.97andfruitclassification.jpegfileonKSOL Originfromoneovary=simplefruit Originfrommultipleovaries=complexfruit UnderstandingFruits Bylookingcarefullyatafruityoucanoftentellalittleabouttheflower thatproducedit. Wasthefruitfromasuperiororinferiorovary Howmanycarpelswereusedtomakethefruit Isthisasimple,aggregate,ormultiplefruit Somefruitsarenotripenedovarywalls.Canyounameone Embryology Eudicot seed (two cotyledons) – Seed coat – Embryo • Radicle (becomes root) • Cotyledon (embryonic leaves) • Epicotyl (plumule, stem, above cotyledon) • Hypocotyl (between cotyledon and radicle) Monocotseed(onecotyledon) – Pericarp – Embryo • Endosperm(providenourishment) • Plumule(similartoepicotyl) • Radicleenclosedincoleorhiza;plumuleincoleoptile Germination =resumptionofembryogrowth afteraperiodofdormancy – Triggeredbymoisture,temperatureorlight – Radicleemergesfirst – Seedling=referstogerminatingyoungplant – Twotypesofeudicotdevelopment • Hypogean– cotyledonsremainbelowtheground(e.g.pea) • Epidgean– cotyledonsriseabovetheground(e.g.bean) – Monocots– coleoptileemergesfirst Eudicot germination Monocot germination Both ThisLab • Viewvarioustypesoffruits – Knowthefruittypes – Trytodeterminethenumberofcarpelsandthe relationshiptotheovary – Hypothesizehoweachisdispersed • Viewbeanandcornseedsandseedlings • Fruits that split open when they are mature are _______ – Dehiscent • Fruits that come from one ovary are called _______ – Simple Fruits • ___________ have a soft, moist fruit that surrounds the seed – Fleshy Fruits • A hesperidium is a type of ______ – Berry WhattypeofFruit WhattypeofFruit WhattypeofFruit WhattypeofFruit WhattypeofFruit Gymnosperms But first…. Lets see how much you remember, my pupils Xylem transports what water Phloem transports what sugars and nutrients In what direction does xylem carry water roots to leaves In what direction does phloem carry sugars/nutrients roots to leaves and leaves to roots What is a rhizome Bryophytes Fern Allies Ferns Phyla----> Hepatico- Bryo- Psiloto- Lycophyta Equiseto- Polypodio- phyta phyta phyta phyta phyta Vascular No No Yes Yes Yes Yes tissue Leaf type None None None / Microphylls Mega- Mega- enations phylls phylls Waternec. for fert. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Dom. Gam Sporo Sporo Sporo Generation Gam (N) (N) (2N) Sporo (2N) (2N) (2N) 1 in most # spore 1 With 1 in most types 1 1 1 2 in Isoetes & elaters 2 in some Selaginella Gymnosperms Gymnosperm Phylogeny • Taxa observed today are vascular plants with ‘naked’ seeds Gymnosperm Overview • Seed – Allows plant to survive ‘stress’ – Dispersal mechanism – Offers food/protection to young sporophyte Gymnosperm Overview • Life cycle – 2n sporophyte dominant – Gametophyteis completely dependenton the sporophyte (opposite of ferns and mosses) – Non-motile sperm cells in Phyla Gnetophytaand Pinophyta – Pollen = male gametophyte= microgametophyte • Develops pollen tube that grows into female gametophyte – Female gametophyte= inside developingseed Gymnosperm Taxonomy • Phylum Ginkgophyta – Only one extant member: Ginkgo biloba • Common horticultural deciduous tree (golden color in fall before leafs abscission in the fall) • Dioecious = separate male and female trees • Flagellated sperm • Mature seed are surrounded by a fleshy coat – with nauseating odor • Phylum Cycadophyta – May be first insect-pollinatedplants – Dioecious Houseplant – Unbranched trunk, with pinnately divided leaves – Flagellated sperm • Phylum Gnetophyta – Vessels in xylem – Non-flagellated sperm – Only 3 genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Successful double fertilization • Phylum Pinophyta – pines, spruces, conifers, cedars, cypress, yews, firs, junipers, redwoods – Non-flagellated sperm – Pollen = male gametophyte = microgametophyte • Develops pollen tube that grows into female gametophyte – Female gametophyte = inside developing seed – Resin is aromatic, antiseptic and reduce fungi growth -Leaves needle like adapted to survive in harsh environments 1.cuticle cover with wax 2.hypodermis with thick-walled cells 3.sunken stomatas 4.lack air spaces among tissues Today’s Lab • Learn terms • Phylum Pinophyta – Know pine life cycle • Describe how sperm (pollen) fertilizes egg – View slides of cones • Distinguish male from female cones • No ovulate cone slides (see http://www.biology.iastate.edu/Courses/211L/Coniferoph/ gymnoindx.htm) – View pine needles • Become familiar with other gymnosperm phyla Gymnosperm Phylogeny • Taxa observed today are vascular plants with ‘naked’ seeds This lab Ferns Cycads Ginkgos Conifers Welwitschia Flowering PolypodiophytaCycadophyta Ginkgophyta Pinophyta Gnetophyta Plants Unsuccessful double 2 sperm nucleifertilization No double fertilization Non-flagellated Flagellated sperm sperm Male microgametophyte Megasporocyte undergo MEIOSIS MITOSIS Wrap-up To what phylum does this plant belong Cycadophyta What phylum Gnetophyta To what phylum does this plant belong Ginkgophyta What is its scientific name Ginkgo biloba To what phylum do these plants belong Pinophyta Name three reasons why a seed is an important development. Survival through periods of stress, Dispersal, Food/ Protection for the young sporophyte Is this cone This one male or female Female Male ! 1. The Gymnosperm pollenis also known as microgametophyte/male gametophyteand is haploid ( haploid or diploid) 2. The spermatogenous cellof the Gymnosperms produces a total of ___________ sperm cells via the process of ___________________. a)4, mitosis b)4, meiosis c)2, mitosis d)2, meiosis 3. Seed productionis a crucial plant adaptation to protect the embryo until favorable conditions for germination are present in the environment. This important trait is first observed in the__________________. a)Angiosperm b)Pinophyta c)Polypodiophyta d)Equisetophyta e)None of the above ! 4. The name of the cell that undergoes a division and produces the sterile celland the spermatogenous cellin Gymnosperms is known as the generative cell. (Hint: cell identified as number 2) 5. The development of seeds allowed the Gymnosperm embryo to disperse further and conquer dryer inland territories compared to members of the Phylum Polypodiophyta which disperse via spores.