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Trigonometry | ISBN: 9780495108351 | Authors: Charles P McKeague ISBN: 9780495108351 200

Solution for problem 7.1.58 Chapter 7.2

Trigonometry

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Trigonometry | ISBN: 9780495108351 | Authors: Charles P McKeague

Trigonometry

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Problem 7.1.58

Find all solutions to each of the following triangles:C=5130',c=707m,b 821m

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Lecture 14: The Critical Period Hypothesis Critical Period for Language Acquisition:  Eric Lenneberg, a biolinguist, said yes o If a young person (before puberty) has part or all of the left hemisphere of their brain removed (that is where the ability to speak and understand language is housed), then they will be able to relearn language. o However, if the person has already reached puberty then they will not be able to relearn a language. o This is because during the critical period (before puberty), you can learn language but once that period is over you won’t be able to relearn it. (However if you know on language you can learn another) Forbidden Experiment  The forbidden experiment is to deprive children of language input for certain periods of time and see how well, if at all, they will be able to learn a language after that.  Some old kings and emperors did this because they were curious, and thought that the children would end up speaking the original, first language. Genie  Was found at age 13. She was deprived of all language input and was tied to a potty chair during the day and sometimes night.  Her language ability was the same as a toddler's, barely able to babble.  After years, she was able to say words and eventually groups of two or three words. This is similar to the 2 word pre­syntax stage of very young children, however she didn’t seem to know the rules of syntax. o She might say something like “applesauce buy store”  The reason why Genie was unable to acquire language is because if is the innate Language Acquisition Device isn’t activated through hearing a language within the Critical Period, then it will disappear. o If it is activated, as it is for most people, then we will be able to learn a second language later in life however it will take effort and you will speak with an accent.  There are other cases of these “Feral children”, such as Victor who was found at 13 wandering the woods, he had been adopted by stray dogs after being abandoned by his parents.  Without stimulation, if a person is seriously neglected then their brain will physically shrink. Conclusion  If you are not exposed to a language before puberty, you will not be able to learn a language.  Also, psychological and social deprivation could have impeded cognitive development. This might have impacted the children’s ability to learn language. Second Language Acquisition  It is common for people to grow up learning multiple languages.  Learning a language before the age of 7 makes someone fully fluent in that language  Learning a language before the age of 15 (or puberty) makes someone almost completely fluent.  Learning a language after the age of 15 will be difficult and take hard work. They will always speak with an accent. o This is because the Language Acquisition Device for that language was never “installed” during the critical period and has shut down.  The length of exposure to language does not influence someone’s fluidity. It is WHEN you were exposed to the language. A child who learns a language from 3­5 years will always be more fluent than someone who learns a language from 15­30 years.  You are not able to become fluent in a language after puberty because the critical period has passed. o Critical Period Hypothesis Weak form: It is possible for someone who has learned a first language early in life to learn a second language. o Critical Period Hypothesis Strong form: The ability to learn a language is not due to how much you are able to practice it, but rather when you learned it. How did Genie Learn as Much as She Did  Her Language Acquisition Device was not activated during the Critical Period  But, before the Universal Grammar humans used a simpler, innate grammar device called Proto­Language  proto­Language is older than language as we know it. We still have this ability, however around age 2 we activate syntax and our “Advanced” way of language.  Genie had to rely on proto­language because that was built in, and she wasn’t exposed to language so it couldn’t switch over to the LAD. Proto­Language  Doesn’t have syntax.  It can manifest itself in some circumstances: o All two year olds o Genie, and other people deprived like her o Foreigner Speech, particularly is someone is frantic o Possibly other primates o Pidgin (created when two languages are merged) o Parentese (speaking to young children)  The words are for concrete concepts. Phonology is simple and recursion is not used. Gesturing is typically used.  People aren’t really sure where Proto­Language is stored in the brain, but it might be on the right side. Lecture 14: The Critical Period Hypothesis Critical Period for Language Acquisition:  Eric Lenneberg, a biolinguist, said yes o If a young person (before puberty) has part or all of the left hemisphere of their brain removed (that is where the ability to speak and understand language is housed), then they will be able to relearn language. o However, if the person has already reached puberty then they will not be able to relearn a language. o This is because during the critical period (before puberty), you can learn language but once that period is over you won’t be able to relearn it. (However if you know on language you can learn another) Forbidden Experiment  The forbidden experiment is to deprive children of language input for certain periods of time and see how well, if at all, they will be able to learn a language after that.  Some old kings and emperors did this because they were curious, and thought that the children would end up speaking the original, first language. Genie  Was found at age 13. She was deprived of all language input and was tied to a potty chair during the day and sometimes night.  Her language ability was the same as a toddler's, barely able to babble.  After years, she was able to say words and eventually groups of two or three words. This is similar to the 2 word pre­syntax stage of very young children, however she didn’t seem to know the rules of syntax. o She might say something like “applesauce buy store”  The reason why Genie was unable to acquire language is because if is the innate Language Acquisition Device isn’t activated through hearing a language within the Critical Period, then it will disappear. o If it is activated, as it is for most people, then we will be able to learn a second language later in life however it will take effort and you will speak with an accent.  There are other cases of these “Feral children”, such as Victor who was found at 13 wandering the woods, he had been adopted by stray dogs after being abandoned by his parents.  Without stimulation, if a person is seriously neglected then their brain will physically shrink. Conclusion  If you are not exposed to a language before puberty, you will not be able to learn a language.  Also, psychological and social deprivation could have impeded cognitive development. This might have impacted the children’s ability to learn language. Second Language Acquisition  It is common for people to grow up learning multiple languages.  Learning a language before the age of 7 makes someone fully fluent in that language  Learning a language before the age of 15 (or puberty) makes someone almost completely fluent.  Learning a language after the age of 15 will be difficult and take hard work. They will always speak with an accent. o This is because the Language Acquisition Device for that language was never “installed” during the critical period and has shut down.  The length of exposure to language does not influence someone’s fluidity. It is WHEN you were exposed to the language. A child who learns a language from 3­5 years will always be more fluent than someone who learns a language from 15­30 years.  You are not able to become fluent in a language after puberty because the critical period has passed. o Critical Period Hypothesis Weak form: It is possible for someone who has learned a first language early in life to learn a second language. o Critical Period Hypothesis Strong form: The ability to learn a language is not due to how much you are able to practice it, but rather when you learned it. How did Genie Learn as Much as She Did  Her Language Acquisition Device was not activated during the Critical Period  But, before the Universal Grammar humans used a simpler, innate grammar device called Proto­Language  proto­Language is older than language as we know it. We still have this ability, however around age 2 we activate syntax and our “Advanced” way of language.  Genie had to rely on proto­language because that was built in, and she wasn’t exposed to language so it couldn’t switch over to the LAD. Proto­Language  Doesn’t have syntax.  It can manifest itself in some circumstances: o All two year olds o Genie, and other people deprived like her o Foreigner Speech, particularly is someone is frantic o Possibly other primates o Pidgin (created when two languages are merged) o Parentese (speaking to young children)  The words are for concrete concepts. Phonology is simple and recursion is not used. Gesturing is typically used.  People aren’t really sure where Proto­Language is stored in the brain, but it might be on the right side.

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Textbook: Trigonometry
Edition:
Author: Charles P McKeague
ISBN: 9780495108351

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