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What is the angle between a force vector and a torque

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9781429201247 | Authors: Paul A. Tipler, Gene Mosca ISBN: 9781429201247 201

Solution for problem 3 Chapter 10

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, | 6th Edition

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Physics for Scientists and Engineers, | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9781429201247 | Authors: Paul A. Tipler, Gene Mosca

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, | 6th Edition

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Problem 3

What is the angle between a force vector and a torque vector generated by

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Chapter Nine Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences The Influence of Animal Psychology of Behaviorism ● Watson said behaviorism is a direct outgrowth of studies in animal behavior ● Animal psychology is the product of evolutionary theory ● It is the most important antecedent of behaviorism ● It is influenced by Romanes (with his anecdotal method) and Morgan (with his Law of Parsimony and experimental method) ● Willard Small introduced the rat maze ● Jacques Loeb introduced plant and animal tropisms ○ Tropism: involuntary forced movement ○ Associative memory: an association between stimulus and response, taken to indicate evidence of consciousness in animals ● John Watson’s dissertation was titled “Animal Education: The Psychial Development of the White Rat” ○ Behaviorism must deal with observable stimulus­response relationships ○ No mental activities need to be considered ○ Based on the concept of positivism in science (positivism emphasized facts that cannot be debated) ● Turner was an African American who wrote a paper on ant behavior ● Washburn was Titchener’s first doctoral student who taught animal psychology at Cornell ○ “The Animal Mind” was the first comparative psychology book published in America ● Clever Hans was that horse who did cool stuff ○ Stumpf led a government investigation, but found no fraud or deceit ○ He concluded that Hans was receiving some type of information from his questioners ○ Further experiments suggested that Hans was receiving cues from the audience leaning forward or von Osten himself ● Animal research is not popular with administrators because of the cost or smell ○ They are the last hired and first fired ○ Hard field to gain promotion or national reputation ○ Many were told to switch to better known applied areas such as education Thorndike ● Thorndike read James’ “Principles of Psychology” and later studied with James ● He planned research with children but wasn’t permitted so he studied chicks ● He ran the chicks in James’ basement to the delight of James’ children ● After a failed relationship, he went to Columbia to get his PhD with Cattell ○ Used cats and dogs ○ “Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals” ● Connectionism: learning through connections between stimuli and responses ● Mechanism: behavior is reduced to stimulus­response elements ● The puzzle box looked at quantitative measures of learning such as number of errors or time lapse ○ Unsuccessful responses are stamped out and successful responses are stamped in ○ Trial and error learning: learning based on the repetition of response tendencies that lead to success ● Laws of Learning ○ Law of Effect: acts produce satisfaction in a given situation become associated with that situation; when the situation recurs, the act is likely to recur ■ Acts that produce dissatisfaction in a given situation will lead to a stamping out of the S­R bond and will be less likely to occur in that situation ■ Thorndike’s Law of Rewards and Punishment: single most important law in psychology ■ This was a mechanistic law and not as mentalist one as many, including Watson, believed it to be ○ Law of Exercise (use or disuse): the more an act or response is used in a given situation, the more strongly that act becomes associated with that situation ■ Thorndike’s Law of practice or Habit ■ He was unable to demonstrate this law conclusively ○ Law of Readiness: the animal must be in a state of readiness for the S­R bond to be strengthened ■ Later called the OK reaction ■ Thorndike’s motivational law ■ Thorndike failed to prove this law too ● Thorndike found that reward is more effective than mere repetition ● He was the beginning of the ascension of the learning theory ● His objectivism influenced behaviorism ● Thorndike’s laws of learning were to be the most modern and advanced for the next thirty years even though they were overlooked by many other theorists Pavlov ● Pavlov intended to study for the priesthood ● He read about Darwin and chose to study animal physiology ● Extremely poor and developed the Russian peasant work ethic ● His total dedication to research bought animals and equipment with his meager salary ● He was critical of Stalin but survives the war ● Had a famous temper that would quickly flare up and die down but he was still loved by his graduate student and laboratory staff ● Allowed women and Jewish students to work in his laboratory ● Won a Nobel Prize for his work on digestion ● Conditioned Reflexes: reflexes that are conditional or dependent on the formation of an association or connection between stimulus and response ● Pavlov’s three research areas ○ Function of coronary nerves ○ Primary digestive glands ○ Conditioned reflexes (most relevant to psychology) ■ First preparation was the was external stomach ■ Later used a tube in the salivary glands ● There was a serendipitous finding when he was studying the natural reflex of salivation ○ To study digestive glands in dogs, Pavlov surgically diverted the gland so saliva could be collected outside the dog's’ cheeks ○ Dogs salivated when food was placed in their mouth ○ Noticed that dogs soon salivated at the sight of food or sound of feeders footsteps ○ The unlearned salivation reflex now conditioned (connected) to stimuli associated with food delivery ○ Pavlov turned his attention to studying how this comes about ● Psychic reflexes: occurred in individual animals because of experience or conditioning ○ Unlike physiological reflexes that occurred in all animals innately ○ Had Pavlov not turned his attention to these reflexes, he would not have been known today ● Gave Descartes credit for the concept of reflex ● Salivating to the food in the mouth is innate (unconditioned reflex) ● Salivating to the sight of food is learned (conditioned reflex) ● Pavlov did painstaking research and controlled unwanted variance ● He had a Tower of Silence to reduce outside stimuli ● Classical conditioning is much more important than most teachers realize because it is the basis of emotional behavior in humans Twitmyer ● He was an American who wrote a dissertation on reflexes ● He gave a presentation at the APA on the knee­jerk reflex ● He found that the knee­jerk elicited by other stimuli present when the original stimulus (tap of the hammer just below the knee) ● Suggested this as a topic of further research but no one in the audience expressed interest and his findings were ignored ● Due to Zeitgeist, Twitmyer’s inexperience, inability to continue his work, scheduling his talk just before lunch, James’ failure to allow time for comments, or some combination of these reasons, Twitmyer missed out on making one of the most significant findings in the history of psychology Bekhterev ● May have been assassinated at Stalin’s request ● Associated reflexes: reflexes that can be elicited not only by unconditioned stimuli but also by stimuli that have become associated with the unconditioned stimuli ● Interested in motor conditioning response where Pavlov concentrated on conditioning glandular responses ● Discovered associated reflexes Chapter Ten Behaviorism: The Beginnings The baby, the hammer, and the remaining history of little Albert Watson ● Watson credited the works of others as originators of behaviorism and saw himself as bringing together the emergent ideas ● He was the willing and enthusiastic spokesperson for the new school of behaviorism ● He had delinquent behavior in his youth because of his mother’s extreme religion and father’s deplorable behavior ● He was determined to be a minister to fulfill his mother’s wish ○ Enrolled at Furman and studied philosophy, math, Latin, and Greek ○ Told people he didn’t graduate from Furman because of his last exam ● He planned to pursue a graduate degree in philosophy with Dewey but was attracted to psychology through his work with Angell ● Earned his PhD from the University of Chicago ● Offered a professorship at Johns Hopkins that offered promotion, salary rise, and opportunity to direct the psychology laboratory ● He wrote “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” and it launches behaviorism ● “Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology” ○ Argued for the acceptance of animal psychology ○ Described the advantages of animal subjects ○ Discussed the importance of ridding psychology of the remnants of philosophy ● “Psychology From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist” ○ Most complete account of behaviorism to date ○ Argued methods and principles of animal research are appropriate for the study of humans ● Watson was forced to resign from Johns Hopkins because he fell in love with Rosalie Rayner, his graduate assistant ○ His marriage deteriorated and they divorced because of his infidelities ○ He was astonished when forced to resign ○ Married Rosalie but still banished from academia ○ Titchener was one of the few academics who reached out to comfort him ● For his second career, he applied psychology in advertising ○ Took a mechanistic view of humans and said we were controlled by emotions ○ Watson was so successful that he was paid way more than most professors ● “Behaviorism”: introduced a plan to perfect the social order which could cure all the problems of society and the world ● His wife died and he became a recluse ● He received an award from the APA and refused to go get it because he thought he would show his emotions and cry ● Burned all his papers prior to his death ● Watson’s major points ○ The science of behavior is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science ○ Both animal and human behavior are studied ○ Discard all mentalistic concepts and use only behavior concepts ○ Goal: prediction and control of behavior Methods of Behaviorism ● Adoption of the methods of the natural sciences ○ Only what can be observed ● Verbal reports were allowed by Watson because they indicated behavior but their use was still controversial ● Watson widely applied the conditional reflex method in psychology Subject Matter of Behaviorism ● Items or elements of behavior ○ The goal is to understand overall behavior of the total organism ○ Acts vs. responses ■ Acts: complex behaviors ■ Responses: act accomplishes some result ■ Capable of being reduced to simple, lower level motor or glandular responses ○ Explicit vs. implicit responses ■ Explicit is overtly observable ■ Implicit happen inside the organism but must be potentially observable through the use of instruments ○ Simple vs. complex stimuli ■ Complex stimulus situation can be reduced to simple, component stimuli ■ An example of simple stimuli is light waves striking the retina ○ Specific laws of behavior ■ Identified through analysis of S­R complexes ■ Must find elementary S­R units ○ Major topics: instinct, emotion, thought ○ In all areas of behavior, you must use objective S­R terms ● Watson described eleven instincts but ten years later eliminated the concept of instinct ○ He was an extreme environmentalist and radical behaviorist ○ Denied inherited capacities, temperaments, and talents ○ Children can become anything one desires ○ This was a factor in his popularity with the American public ○ Said seemingly instinctive behaviorism is actually a socially conditioned response ○ Psychology can only be applied if behavior can be modified ● Emotions such as fear, love, and rage are not learned emotional response patterns to stimuli ○ Loud noises or sudden lack of support lead to fear ○ Restriction of bodily movements leads to rage ○ Caressing, rocking, or patting lead to love ● Albert, Peter, and the rabbits ○ The Albert study demonstrated conditioned (learned) emotional responses ○ Watson said adult fears are learned, and do not arise from Freud’s unconscious conflicts ○ Mary Cover Jones: counter conditioned little Albert and Peter who was conditioned to fear white rabbits ■ Her method was later modified and used by Wolpe who became famous for counterconditioning ● Thought processes ○ Traditional View: thinking occurs in the brain with an absence of muscle movements and is not accessible to observation and experimentation ○ Watson’s view: thinking is an implicit motor behavior such as counting on fingers ■ Involves implicit speech reactions or movements ■ Reduced it to subvocal talking which uses the same muscular habits as used for overt speech ■ Thinking is basically silent talking to oneself Behaviorism’s Popular Appeal ● Watson called for a society based on scientifically shaped and controlled behavior ○ Free of myths, customs, and convention ○ Skinner read “The Religion Called Behaviorism” ● Emphasis on childhood environment and minimization of heredity ● Conditioned reflex experiments ○ Implied emotional disturbances in adulthood due to conditioned responses during earlier years ○ Implies proper childhood conditioning precludes adult disorders ● Watson wanted to replace religious ethics with experimental ethics ○ Based on behaviorism ○ Part of a plan to improve society ○ Provides a framework for research ○ Elaborated by skinner ● Product of a public already attentive to and receptive of psychology and Watson’s considerable charm and vision of hope for behavioral change and betterment of society Criticisms of Watson’s Behaviorism ● McDougall had a debate with Watson ○ Agreed data of behavior was a proper focus for psychology ○ Argued data of consciousness also necessary ○ Questioned Watson’s tenet that human behavior is fully determined ○ Critical of Watson’s use of the verbal report method ● Lashley experimented with rats and found that the brain found a more active role in learning than Watson thought ○ Law of mass action: the efficiency of learning is a function of the total mass of cortical tissue ○ Equipotentiality: the idea that one part of the cerebral cortex is essentially equal to another in its contribution to learning Chapter Eleven Behaviorism: After The Founding Know the importance of the IQ Zoo founded by Keller and Marie Breland Stages of Behaviorism ● Watsonian Behaviorism: major figure was Watson himself ● Neobehaviorism: major figures are Hull, Tolman, and Skinner ○ Core of psychology is the study of learning ○ Most behavior can be accounted for by the laws of conditioning ○ Psychology must adopt the principle of operationism ● Sociobehaviorism: major figures are Bandura and Rotter ○ Includes return to cognitive processes Operationalism ● Key feature of Neobehaviorism ● Purpose is to render the language and terminology of science more objective and precise and to rid science of pseudo problems ● Operationalism: doctrine that a physical concept can be defined in precise terms relating to the set of operations of procedures by which it is determined ● Basic principle: the validity of finding a construct depends on the validity of the operations used to achieve that finding Tolman ● Studied engineering at MIT and got a PhD at Harvard ● He was trained as a Titchenerian structuralist but became acquainted with Watsonian behaviorism ● Worked at the University of California at Berkeley ○ Taught comparative psychology ○ Conducted research on learning in rats ○ Formed his own vision of behaviorism after becoming dissatisfied with Watson’s ● Purposive behaviorism: Tolman’s system combining the objective study of behavior with the consideration of purposiveness or goal orientation in behavior ● “Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men” ○ Rejected introspection ○ Had no interest in any presumed internal experiences unless accessible to objective observation ○ Purposiveness was defined in objective behavioral terms ○ Said all behavior is directed toward some goal ○ “Behavior reeks of purpose” ● Intervening variables: unobserved and inferred factors within the organism that are the actual determinants of behavior ○ The initiating causes as well as the results of behavior must be observable and operationally defined (e.g. Hunger can’t be seen (intervening variable) but the initiating cause (hours without food) can be seen and the results (eating fast and eating a lot) can be seen ○ Causes are independent variables ■ Environmental stimuli ■ Psychological drives ■ Heredity ■ Previous training ■ Age ○ Resultant behaviors are a function of the five causes (IVs) and the relationship is expressed in a mathematical formula ○ Intervening variables connect the stimulus situation with the observed response ○ They are useful only if they are clearly related to both the observable independent variable and observable behavior ■ Allowed Tolman to operationally define unobservable, internal states ○ He initially called this approach operational behaviorism ● Learning Theory ○ Learning was central in Tolman’s purposive behaviorism ○ Rejected Thorndike’s Law of Effect ■ Reward has little influence on learning ■ Proposed a cognitive explanation of learning in its place ○ Repeated performance of a task strengthens the learned relationship between environmental cues and the organism’s expectations ■ Called these relationships sign Gestalts ■ They are learned ■ Cue expectancy is associated with a particular choice point either leads or does not lead to reinforcement ● Cognitive maps are a pattern of sign Gestalts ○ Animals learn a cognitive map, not a set of motor habits ● Tolman was a forerunner of the cognitive movement ● Intervening variables engendered scientific respect for operationally defining internal states ● The rat was the primary subject for neobehaviorists ○ They were simple, easy to study, and readily available ○ It was assumed that one could generalize from rats to other animals and humans Hull ● Hull’s major goal was to develop a mathematical equation to predict behavior ● He had ill health including polio and poor eyesight ● Hull’s early work revealed continued interest in using objective methods and developing useable laws ○ Concept formation ○ Effects of tobacco on behavioral efficiency ○ Tests and measurements ○ Applied area: aptitude testing ○ Practical methods of statistical analysis ○ Invented a machine for calculating correlations ○ Hypnosis and suggestibility: 10 years, 32 papers, one book “Hypnosis and Suggestibility” ● Professor at Yale ● Interested in developing a theory of behavior based on Pavlov’s laws of conditioning ● He reads articles by Pavlov and later writes articles about basic conditioning and its usefulness in understanding higher order behaviors ● Writes “Principles of Behavior” which was an ambitious theoretical attempt to account for all behavior ● Writes “A Behavior System” which is the final form of Hull’s theory ● The Spirit of Mechanism ● The Hypothetico­Deductive Method ○ Establish postulates ○ Deduce experimentally testable hypotheses ○ Submit them to experimental test ○ Is the method necessary for psychology to be a science ● Hull’s Behavioral Equation ○ Drives: stimulus arising from a state of tissue need that arouses or activates behavior ■ An intervening variable ■ Drive reduction is the only basis of reinforcement ■ Usually measured by length of deprivation ■ Changes with time and internal state of the object ○ Habit Strength is measured by the number of trials in which drive reduction has occurred ■ Each case of drive reduction leads to a permanent increase in habit strength ○ Incent (K) also increased the likelihood of behavior occurring if the reinforcer value was high ■ Added because of the Crespi Study ■ Named K for Ken Spence, a favored graduate student ● Some things decreased the likelihood of behavior ○ Reactive inhibition (like boredom or fatigue) which increased whenever a behavior was emitted regardless of reinforcement or not ■ Decreased as time passed ○ Conditioned inhibition which occurred anytime a response was made and no reinforcement occurred ■ Each unreinforced trial leads to a permanent decrease in the likelihood of behavior ○ Oscillating Factor which varies over time and from subject to subject ■ Somewhat of a copout admitting that was really hard to predict ● Learning has a key role in Hull’s system ○ He focuses on the principle of reinforcement (Thorndike’s Law of Effect) ○ Law of primary reinforcement: when a stimulus­response relationship is followed by a reduction in a bodily need, the probability increases that on subsequent occasions the same stimulus will evoke the same response ● Behaviorism could be divided into two camps: those who waited to disprove Hull’s latest work and those who waited to confirm it ● Semester­long behavioral course were taught on Hull and his behavioral equations and postulates ● He had a pronounced effect on psychology through the amount of research he generated and provoked, the achievements of his students and followers, and defending, extending, and expounding objective behaviorism ● Has been called a theoretical genius Skinner ● He had a large and loyal group of followers ● Developed and wrote about subjects that had considerable impact ○ Behavioral control ○ Behavior modification ○ Utopian society (Walden Two) ○ “Beyond Freedom and Dignity” ● Became a celebrity in his own right ● Skinner recalled his early childhood environment as affectionate and stable ● Went to the same small community and school as his parents did ● Built things as a child and worked with/observed animals ● He used his early life experiences as a base for his system of psychology ○ Product of past reinforcements ○ Seemingly predetermined, lawful, and orderly ○ His experiences are traceable to environmental stimuli ● Got a degree in English from Hamilton College and was almost expelled for attitude and pranks ● Worked at writing for two years after favorable feedback from Robert Frost ● Depressed by his lack of success in writing and romance ● Read about Pavlov and Watson ● Got his PhD from Harvard and his dissertation was about how a reflex is a correlation between stimulus and a response ● “Behavior of Organisms” covered the basic points of his survey ● “Science and Human Behavior” was a basic textbook for his system ● “Walden II” describes life in a community based on behavioral principles (Token Economy) ● Towards the end of his life he found writing to be a positive reinforcement ● Published an article, “Intellectual Self­Management in Old Age” ● Described his feelings of dying with leukemia in a radio interview ● Vigorously attacked the growth of cognitive psychology in a paper delivered at an APA meeting ● Final article: “Can Psychology Be a Science of Mind” ● “Particulars of My Life” was his autobiography Skinner’s Behaviorism ● In some ways this was a regeneration of Watsonian Behaviorism ● Although he was as rigorous as Hull, some important contrasts exist ● Hull emphasized the importance of theory while Skinner advocated a system with no theoretical framework ○ Not adverse to all theorizing ○ Warned against premature theorizing ● Devoted to the study of responses ● Concerned with describing behavior rather than explaining it ● Dealt only with observable behavior­ ● Task of scientific inquiry was to establish functional relationships between the experimenter­controlled stimulus and the organism’s response ● He made no presumptions about internal entities ○ The “empty organism” approach ○ Internal mental and physiological events exist but are not useful to science ● He used a single­subject design ○ Large numbers of subjects were not necessary ○ Statistical comparisons of group means were not necessary ○ A single subject provides valid and replicable results ○ You cannot predict the behavior of a particular individual from knowledge of the average individual ○ The Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior was established because other journals did not accept single­subject designs Operant Conditioning ● Contrasted with respondent (Pavlovian) conditioning, which is elicited by a specific observable stimulus ● Operant behavior occurs without an observable external stimulus ○ Operates on the organism’s environment ○ The behavior is instrumental in securing a stimulus such as food ○ More representative of everyday learning ○ Most effective approach to science of behavior is the study of the conditioning and extinction of operants ● Studied bar pressing in the Plexiglass “Skinner box”: the rate of response ● Law of Acquisition: the strength of an operant behavior increases when it is followed by the presentation of a reinforcing stimulus ○ The key variable is reinforcement ○ Practice provides opportunities for additional reinforcement ○ Differs from Thorndike’s and Hull’s positions because they are explanatory while Skinner is strictly descriptive ● Hull: internal drives, Skinner: empty organism More Skinner Stuff ● Schedules of Reinforcement: conditions involving various rates and times of reinforcement ○ Reinforcement is necessary in operant conditioning ○ Reinforcement schedules are continuous or intermittent ○ Schedules were accidently discovered because of a food pellet shortage ○ Skinner tried to save pellets by using intermittent reinforcement schedules instead of continuous and the pattern and rate of behavior changed in unique but predictable patterns ○ Schedules are more like real life (e.g. salary is given on an intermittent schedule) ○ Intermittent schedules take longer to extinguish ● Successive Approximation (AKA shaping) ○ Lever pressing is a simple behavior, while most operant behaviors are more complex ○ IQ Zoo is an example ○ With shaping, behaviors that come closer and closer to the target operant behavior are reinforced ○ Skinner says this is how children learn language ● Aircrib (baby in the box) brought Skinner public notoriety ○ Mechanized environment invented to relieve menial labor ○ Not commercially successful ○ Daughter reared in it with no ill effects ● Teaching machine was invented by Pressey and not enthusiastically received ○ Back then there was a surplus of teachers and no public pressure to improve learning ○ Skinner promoted a similar device and there was a resurgence of interest because there was an excess of students and public pressure to improve education so the USA could compete with the Soviet Union ○ “The Technology of Teaching”, Skinner summarized his work in this field ○ After the 1960s, computer­assisted instructional models became dominant ● pigeon ­guided missiles were developed by Skinner during WWII ○ Pigeons were housed in missile nose­cones and were a guidance system to steer bombs from warplanes to ground targets ○ Trained through prior conditioning to peck at target image ○ Pecking affected angles of missile’s fins ○ Resultant adjustments kept missile on target ○ Pigeons were very accurate but the military was not impressed ● Walden II ­ a behaviorist society ○ Program of behavioral control ○ A technology of behavior ○ Application of laboratory findings to society at large ○ Novel of a 1000 member rural community ○ Behavioral control through positive reinforcement ○ Outgrowth of Skinner’s midlife depression, expressing his own conflicts and despair ○ Reflected mechanism of Galileo, Newton, and the empiricists ● Behavior modification uses positive reinforcement applied in a variety of settings ○ Works with people in the same manner as with animals, by reinforcing desired behavior and extinguishing undesired behavior Criticisms of Skinner ● His extreme positivism ● His opposition to theory ● His willingness to extrapolate beyond data ● The narrow range of behavior studied ● His position that all behaviors are learned ● Problem of instinctive drift: to substitute instinctive behaviors for behaviors that had been reinforced ○ Introduced by the work of the Brelands ○ Innate behaviors stronger than learned behaviors, even when letter delayed access to food ● His position on verbal behavior, which was successfully challenge by Noam Chomsky ● Contributions ○ Shaped American Psychology for 30 years ○ his goal was the improvement of society ○ Strength and ramifications of his radical behaviorism Sociobehaviorism: The Cognitive Challenge ● Social Learning or Social Behaviorist Approach ● Primarily are behaviorists ● Reflected the broader cognitive revolution in psychology ● Marks the third stage of behaviorism ● Bandura ● Bandura had experience with the psychopathology of ordinary life ● PhD from University of Iowa ● APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory ● Behavioristic, but less extreme than Skinner’s behaviorism ○ Reflects the current zeitgeist in its interest in cognitive variables ● Research focus: observation of the behavior of humans in interaction ● Emphasizes the role of reinforcement in learning and behavior modification ● Cognitive aspect stresses the influence of thought processes on external reinforcement schedules ● Reactions to stimuli are self­activated, person­initiated rather than automatic ● The reinforcer is effective if: ○ Person is consciously aware of what is being reinforced ○ Person anticipates the same reinforcer if the behavior is repeated ● Vicarious reinforcement: learning by observing how other people behave and seeing the consequences of how their behavior rather than directly experiencing the consequences of one’s own ○ Assumes human capacity to anticipate and appreciate those outcomes ○ One can regulate one’s behavior by imagining those consequences and making a conscious selection of the behavior to manifest ○ Similar to the S­O­R model, with O being equal to cognitive processes ● Cognitive processes distinguish Bandura’s views with Skinner’s ○ Actual schedule of reinforcement is less important than what the person believes it is ○ Skinner says whoever controls the reinforcers controls behavior ○ Bandura says whoever controls the models in society controls behavior ● Salient characteristics of influential models ○ Same age and sex as self ○ Peers with similar problems ○ High in status and prestige ○ Exhibit simple behaviors ○ Display hostile and aggressive behaviors ● A social learning theory: behavior as formed and modified in social situations ● Criticized Skinner’s work because he did not study human interactions and used single subjects More Bandura ● Self Efficacy: our sense of self­esteem or self­worth, our feeling of adequacy, efficiency, and competence in dealing with problems ○ High self­efficacy persons ■ Believe they can cope with diverse problems ■ Expect to overcome obstacles ■ Seek challenges ■ Persevere ■ Confident in their ability to succeed ■ Exert control over their life ○ Low self­efficacy persons ■ Feel helpless or hopeless about coping ■ Do not expect to overcome or even affect obstacles or situations ■ Give up if initial attempts fail ■ Believe nothing they can do will make a difference ■ Believe they have little or no control over their fate ○ Wide range of effects of self­efficacy beliefs ○ Research shows that high self­efficacy people experience positive outcomes in most aspects of life ○ Diverse groups develop collective high efficacy levels which affect their outcomes in a manner similar to that found with high self­efficacy persons ● Behavior modification ○ Bandura’s goal: change or modify socially undesirable behavior ○ Focus: external aspects of abnormality (i.e. behavior) ○ The use of modeling ○ Bandura’s form of behavior therapy is widely used in diverse settings and has strong research support ● Bandura was criticized by traditional behaviorists who maintain that cognitive processes do not cause behavior ● Positive aspects of Bandura’s theory: ○ Widely accepted in psychology ○ Consistent with the functionalism of American psychology ○ Objective ○ Amenable to precise laboratory methods ○ Responsive to the current cognitive zeitgeist ○ Applicable to practical problems Rotter ● Grew up comfortably in Brooklyn ● Father lost his business in stock market crash ● Rotter read Freud and Adler in high school ● Learned that jobs in psychology are scarce ● Cognitive Processes ­ Rotter was the first to use the term “social learning theory” ○ Had a cognitive approach to behaviorism ○ Invokes the existence of subjective experiences ○ Deals with cognitive processes more extensively than Bandura ■ Both external stimuli and the reinforcement they provide affect behavior ■ Cognitive factors mediate the nature and extent of that influence ○ Four cognitive principles determine behaviors ■ Expectation of amount and kind of reinforcement ■ Estimation of probability the behavior will lead to a particular reinforcement ■ Differential values of reinforcers and assessment of their relative worth ■ Different people place different values on the same reinforcer ● Locus of Control: beliefs about the source of our reinforcers ○ Beliefs about the source of one’s reinforcements ○ Internal locus of control: belief that reinforcement depends on one’s own behavior ○ External locus of control: belief that reinforcement depends on outside forces such as fate, luck, or the actions of other people ○ Learned in the childhood from the ways one is treated ○ Rotter’s 23 item forced­choice test ○ Product of chance discovery ● Rotter’s theory attracts followers who are experimentally oriented and think cognitive variables influence behavior The Fate of Behaviorism ● The cognitive challenge to behaviorism from within modified the behaviorist movement ● Sociobehaviorists still consider themselves behaviorists ○ They are called methodological behaviorists because they employ internal cognitive processes ○ They are contrasted with radical behaviorists like Watson and Skinner who do not deal with presumed internal states ● Skinnerian behaviorism peaked in the 1980s then declined after Skinner’s death ● Today’s behaviorism, particularly in applied psychology, is different from forms it took from Watson to Skinner ● In an evolutionary sense, the spirit of behaviorism still lives

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Textbook: Physics for Scientists and Engineers,
Edition: 6
Author: Paul A. Tipler, Gene Mosca
ISBN: 9781429201247

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