Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Probability And Stochastic Processes: A Friendly Introduction For Electrical And Computer Engineers - 3 Edition - Chapter 9 - Problem 9.1
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Probability And Stochastic Processes: A Friendly Introduction For Electrical And Computer Engineers - 3 Edition - Chapter 9 - Problem 9.1

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

Let Wn denote the st1rri of n, iridependent throws of a

Probability and Stochastic Processes: A Friendly Introduction for Electrical and Computer Engineers | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9781118324561 | Authors: Roy D. Yates, David J. Goodman ISBN: 9781118324561 203

Solution for problem 9.1 Chapter 9

Probability and Stochastic Processes: A Friendly Introduction for Electrical and Computer Engineers | 3rd Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Probability and Stochastic Processes: A Friendly Introduction for Electrical and Computer Engineers | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9781118324561 | Authors: Roy D. Yates, David J. Goodman

Probability and Stochastic Processes: A Friendly Introduction for Electrical and Computer Engineers | 3rd Edition

4 5 1 392 Reviews
Problem 9.1

Let Wn denote the st1rri of n, iridependent throws of a fair fo11r-sided die. Find the expected value and variar1ce of 'VT!n.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

POLI 2051 Exam 3 Lecture Notes CH 10: Voting and Elections REVIEW IS HIGHLIGHTED IN GREEN !! 4/8/16 1:50 PM ▯ I. Political Participation -  Conventional o relatively routine, non-threatening behavior that uses the channels of representative government.  Unconventional o relatively uncommon behavior that challenges or defies government channels. ▯ ▯ ▯ II. Voting  the most common and most studied form of participation.  Record of enfranchisement in the USA o Initially, most states had taxpaying or property holding requirements for voting - These were eliminated by the 1850s. o Enfranchisement of black people  the 15th Amendment  Voting Rights Act of 1965 o Enfranchisement of women  the 19th Amendment  Wyoming was the first state  Because they needed more people to vote in the state o Enfranchisement of 18-year olds  the 26th Amendment  Why were these groups given the right to vote at this particular time SPECIFIC EXAMPLES __ NOT ALL OF THEM o Two reasons historically  To suppress disorder  blacks and 18-year olds in the 1960s  African Americans in the mid 60s o Civil rights movement o Civil disobedience and then the ones who wanted a more aggressive approach to civil rights  18 year olds in ’71  To pacify the citizens during Vietnam, Civil Rights movement, Kent State riot, desegregation of schools causing deaths, etc.  If we give these students who are mostly the ages 18-21, let’s give them the right to vote to give them a way to express their grievances in the ballot box in hopes that they will not actively protest and cause ruckus anymore, but will formally express their opinions and grievances  To acquire consent or popular support for government programs  women during WWI  The country needed women on board for the war because all the men were fighting  This was supposed to be a temporary thing, but by the time the US got this passed, it was a permanent thing.  According to book/professor, it had nothing to do with the fact that 70% of the population could not vote. It had to do with the fact that ▯ ▯ ▯ III. Elections  You must win two elections to hold office in this country.  A look at Presidential elections. o Nomination – what are the objectives  Nominate a candidate obviously, but what factors should a party consider when doing this  - Nominate candidate who can win, or somebody who best represents party principles/platform  Platform o They choose to not talk about certain issues that might get them less support  To win/loose o “don’t vote for trump b/c he’ll loose”  - Make it democratic or not Involve the people in the process, or let party VIPs do the choosing  Sometimes it’s the people choice is also the party establishment’s choice as well  More of a question this year b/c the relation of this election  - And which people should get to vote Everybody or only party members  We should bring independent voters in the primary votes  - Long process so we can learn about the candidates, or quicker selection so we can concentrate on winning the general election  The goal is to win a majority of the delegates available in primaries and caucuses.  Primaries  actual elections.  They differ in a number of ways.  These differences were historically because of differences between Democrat and Republican party rules.  Differences: o (1) Proportional vs. Winner-take-all  Proportional: If you get 25% of votes, you get 25% of delegates  Democrats hand out different number of delegates by congressional districts in states that have been loyal to the party  Democrats require proportional voting from their states with a 15% threshold – you have to get at least 15% to get any delegates  Winner-take-all: If you win the state, you get them all  Republicans put in a window THIS YEAR IN BOTH PRIMARY AND CAUCUS where from March 1- March 14, proportional is a requirement o (2) Date of the primary o (3) Open vs. closed  open: as long as you are registered to vote, you can in primaries  closed: you have to vote for the party you are registered with o (4) Super delegates or not  Democratic:  Barack Obama is one in his home states  Ex: Former majority leader would be one  Big names in the party  Decided by results of primary  Primary election of a state is the election that determines, for the most part, how many delegates each candidate is going to get  Primary is the main thing, where the action happens How does it determine how many delegates a candidate gets o (1) population of state o (2) how loyal your state has been in the last 3 political elections  Caucuses - meetings of interested party members.  A look at the Iowa caucuses.  Why are they first o A schedule quirk in early 70s  Hotel rooms in Des Moines  Not enough rooms, so had to move every event upwards o A law on it  4 stage process in Iowa o (1) Precinct level 1 – select delegates to go to next round (county level) in all 99 counties.  Parties hold their caucuses simultaneously, but they operate differently  Nearly 1700 precincts in Iowa, but some are combined so there will be a round 900 meeting locations  At 7PM  Find out where yours is on party website  Public spaces generally – churches, gyms, veterans’ halls, libraries, maybe even homes  Can participate at 17 as long as you will be eligible to vote by the time elections roll around  Each candidate can send a rep to give a brief endorsement speech (2-3mins)  Process after this is different for Democrats and Republicans  Republicans: vote by secret ballot, ballots are counted, then communicated to the state party via a new smartphone app developed for both parties. The votes this year are binding; the delegates selected in these precinct-level caucuses are “bound to the first ballot to vote proportionally in accordance with the outcome of the Iowa caucuses”  Democrats: divide up into groups and determine viability. Chariman counts total number of eligible caucus goers to make srue a candidate has at least 15% support. If preference groups are not viable, realignment cocurs. Caucus goers in groups deemed non-biable can join with a viable group, join together, or pull people from others groups t obecome viable themselves. Delegates are then elected to go to next level (county) caucuses. Formulas are then used to allocate delegates and avoid rounding issues. o (2) County Conventions  Convene in each county on March 12.  A 15% threshold is required for a candidate to be viable for Democrats.  Delegates from non-viable candidates must realign.  Delegates in general can change their support by signing a statement indicating that they’ve changed. o (3) Four District Conventions  convene on April 30 th  again, a 15% threshold for democrats.  Delegates can change by signing a statement  Proportionally allocate 29 of 52 delegates and republicans allocate 15 of their 30at these district conventions to go to the state national convention o (4) state conventions th  democrats (June 18 ) and republicans (may 21 )st  in addition to the delegates from district conventions, each aprty selects pledged at-large convention delegates and pledged PLEO delegates  this brings the total to 44 pledged democratic and 27 pledged republican delegates to attend the national nominating conventions at the end of summer  democrats also have 8 unpledged superdelegates  7 members of DNC and 1 member of the house  republicans have 3 unpledged delegates  national committeeman, national committeewoman, and chairman of the Iowa republican party  What role do the Iowa precinct caucuses play o A winnowing process o Beating expectations  Does it make sense that Iowa go first every year o Yes – it’s a heartland state w/ honest common-sense rural folks o No – it’s a homogenous (94% white) rural state in an increasingly diverse and urban nation o The Convention  the nominee is officially chosen here. o Presidential General Elections  the goal is to win a majority of electoral votes. o The Electoral College  A system of indirect election - How does it work  Pres. general elections are characterized by the electoral college system.  Electors are chosen within each state (# of electors = # of senators and reps each state has).  These electors then cast votes for the president.  Today, they merely rubber stamp the popular vote decision within each state.  Some features of the electoral college system.  - exaggerates the margin of victory.  - it has lead to the defeat of the candidate with the most popular votes. 1824, 1876. 1888, and 2000.  - benefits the two major parties and hurts minor ones.  Reforming the Electoral College  Direct Election plan –  With a direct vote, voters would rank their preferences rather than marking only one candidate. Then, when the votes are counted, if no single candidate has a majority, the candidate with the lowest number of votes is eliminated. The ballots are then counted again, this time tallying the second choice votes from those ballots indicating the eliminated candidate as the first choice. The process is repeated until a candidate receives a majority, reducing time and money wasted in a normal runoff election.  Proportional plan –  it splits each state’s electoral votes in accordance with their popular vote percentages. This way, a candidate who come in second place in a state with 45% of the popular vote would receive 45% of the electoral votes from that state, instead of 0%.  District plan –  require each person to cast one vote for the candidate of their choice. The candidate who receives the most votes nationwide would win the election, with or without a majority of the votes. This option would require a constitutional amendment to be implemented and would therefore need the support of 2/3 of Congress and 3/4 of the states.  Bonus plan  Increase size of electoral college o Give an extra 2 votes per state and 2 for DC  Interstate Compact  Where states agree to allocate all their electors based on the national population  10 states who’ve already passed this new ▯ ▯ Approval of Congress relative to the president. Congress tends to be less popular than the president I. Basic information on Congress:  Bicameral: o two separate and powerful chambers  Why  Two reasons:  Practical o Population vs. State o Small states wanted better representation, but larger states like it as is.  The Great Compromise  Philosophical o Fear of concentrating power in one central place  House of Representatives:  Representation based on population.  Representatives serve two-year terms  Seats are reapportioned every ten years  We take a census to figure this out  Because we want the House to accurately represent the people – it is the people’s chamber/house  Redistricting o redrawing district lines  GERRYMANDERING o Drawing the boundaries as to favor one party or class and hurt the other party  Senate:  Equal representation  Senators serve six year terms.  Terms are staggered. ▯ ▯ ▯ II. Congressional organization  (1) It’s organized along party lines o Where does the power reside  Leaders-know the top posts  Committees-know the different types  Staff – o What are the advantages of being the majority party  Appoint key leaders  Assign committee chairs  Control the agenda  Oversight of the executive branch  Congress makes sure the president is implementing the bill the way it is supposed to be o Which party holds the majority in the House  Republicans o What about the Senate  Republicans  (2) It’s decentralized, which means that power is spread out in the Congress. Where does the power reside o (A) Leadership positions – know the top posts  Speaker of the House  Paul Ryan  Majority leader of Senate  Mitch McConnell  Minority leader of Senate  Harry Reid  President of the Senate  VP – Joe Biden  Breaks ties  President Pro Tempore (Senate)  Orrin Hatch  Party Whip Positions  Liaisons between leadership and members  Republican Party Whip  John Cornyn  Democratic Party Whip  Richard Durbin o (B) Committees – know the different types  Standing Committees  Deal with issues of permanent legislative concern  Permanent committee  Conference Committees  For a bill to become law both houses must approve identical versions.  When different versions are past the leaders create a conference committee to reconcile the differences between the two bills.  Temporary committee  Select Committees  Deals with temporary issues / investigation  Temporary committee  Joint Committees  Members of both houses usually created to deal with a specific issue  Temporary committee o (C) Staff ▯ ▯ ▯ III. Congressional functions  the two Congresses o Lawmaking  Tuesday-Thursday Congress  how a bill becomes law  - bill must be introduced  A member of Congress  President cannot technically introduce a bill – he’d have to get one of his party friends in Congress to do that for him  - committee/subcommittee  This is where you can either up the chances or lower the chances of said bill being passed  Where most bills die  - floor of the chamber  Everyone gets a crack at it  Where we see differences between House & Senate o Senate has a filibuster  Talking a bill to death for however long you can  Sometimes people talk about whatever  Now, people don’t even have to DO anything to filibuster  You can end it by evoking a cloture petition  - the president  3 options o Sign it  Becomes law o Veto  Saying “no”  Goes back to Senate  Can override w/ a 2/3 majority o Nothing  Just hang on to bill  Pocket veto  If you do not act in 10 days or the end of legislative session happens, the bill is killed  Can issue a signing statement o Where the president signs a piece of legislation and issues a statement indicated how he sees this legislation / what he understands this legislation to mean o Representing  ceremonial appearances, speeches, etc.  Friday-Monday Congress  Ex: Student Government; Faculty Senate  Going back to their home state to talk to their local constituents  Make appearances  Show face for popularity  Hold town hall meeting  Public appearances in district/state to  In each of these roles, representatives can act as delegates or trustees  Congressional elections in general o Two important regularities -  1. Incumbents rarely lose. We like them.  Why  They have a host of official resources o Franking privilege  You can mail anything you want for free to constituents  To educate public on what is going on  To communicate with the constituents you are serving  They have high levels of name recognition o You are more likely to vote for someone you have heard of than someone you have not  They have an easier time raising money  Other advantages: o Redistricting  Know redistricting + gerrymandering o Campaign experience o Etc.  2. President’s party gains seats in a presidential election and loses seats in a midterm election  The average loss in a president’s first midterm is 16 seats.  Why o Surge and decline theory  Independent voters vote in presidential elections but not so much in congressional elections. o Referendum theory  Presidents decline in popularity following their honeymoon period and their party is punished in the midterm. o Balance theory  The electorate boosts its support for the ot party at midterm from a desire for balance in terms of ideology or policy.  Size of the gain or loss depends on three things: o 1) how many seats the president's party holds.  If you have 60 – 70 seats down than the other party or if your party has just lost a lot of seats, you will not lose any for the midterm election. o 2) how well the economy is doing.  Economy is always the #1 issue in the country. o 3) presidential approval o o .  3. Recent trends and upcoming possibilities in midterm elections.  Midterm elections have not followed this trend in some recent midterms. Why  Surge and decline theory o in pres election years the party of the winning pres will pick up seats (affects house more), 2 yrs later, the party will loose seats (doesn't have to change minority/majority)  Referendum Theory  Balance theory  What factors determine the size of the midterm loss  Presidential approval  Congressional decisions o 1998  Right in the middle of Clinton’s scandal – he was being impeached  Democrats picked up seats o 2002  Right after 9/11  Republicans picked up seats  More recently, things have reverted back to normal  2006 midterm – the decline o Democrats pick up seats in House and Senate  Take control of both  2008 Presidential election – the surge o Democrats pick up 24 seats in House and Senate  2010 midterm election – the decline o Democrats lose seats in both  2012 Presidential – the surge o Democrats pick seats in both  2014 midterm – the decline o Republicans pick up sets in both  Take control of Senate ▯ ▯ Presidential Power ▯ I. Framers of the Constitution were fearful of a strong executive. ▯ ▯ II. Constitutional powers show this – aka formal powers  act as administrative head of the nation  serve as commander in chief of the military  convene Congress  veto legislation  appoint top officials  make treaties  grant reprieves and pardons  request opinions in writing from executive officials ▯ provide information to Congress and recommend measures for consideration ▯ ▯ III. Expansion of presidential power – 2 main ways.  1. Stretch the formal powers. o Inherent powers: derive from the fact that the US is a sovereign power among nations  particularly in the area of foreign policy. o Implied powers: powers of the national government that can be inferred from those powers delegated to it in the Constitution.  Military conflict  Executive orders and agreements  Executive order is directed to one or more federal agencies  Agreements are between US pres. + head of a foreign nation  Trying to get around having to make a treaty b/c that requires 2/3 votes of Congress (Senate)  Executive privilege  When president does not have to talk about secret national security issues  The right to keep secrete communications within the executive branch  Impoundment  2. Power to persuade – who is the president trying to persuade o Congress or the bureaucracy - Direct or retail route o The People - Indirect or wholesale route  How do you do this  Point out advantages of your position  Appeal to ability to lead the country  Grant current favors, or call in past ones  Threaten reprisal  Less honorable tactics ▯ ▯ 13.I. Bureaucracy - in general we are talking about a large complex organization composed of appointed officials. ▯ ▯ In this case, we are talking about the bureaus, departments, and offices of the executive branch of the US government.  LSU bureaucracy o Where they can’tt help you here o They send you here and there and everywhere o Very frustrating ▯ ▯ 13.II. Types of bureaucracy – read in text (pps. 396-400)  Departments o Directly responsible  Subdivisions  Independent executive agencies  Gov’t corporations  Quasi-gov’t organizations  SEE TEXTBOOK ▯ ▯ 13.III. Observations on bureaucratic government  Firemen first principle  Slot inflation ▯ ▯ 13.IV. Bureaucratic functions  What do bureaucrats do (pps 400-405). o Rule implementing versus rule making.  Your text calls this “Executing Programs and Policies” (implementing) vs. “Regulating” (rule making).  Congress makes laws, executive branch implements the laws  Bureaucracy does a lot more than just implement the laws  The specifics of laws we live under are made by bureaucratic agencies and departments o Rule making usually takes the form of regulations – imposition of restrictions on the activity of market participants.  Why do we have regulation  To maintain competition  To police natural monopolies  To reduce externalities  Cost on a party that did not choose to get that o Pollution  When is rule making / regulating likely to occur  When Congress sets up an agency in the first place.  They give it certain tasks  In times of great polarization  When congress cannot agree  When Congress passes a new law or modifies an existing one.  When agencies go off on their own covertly. ▯  Also, know the 4 different ideologies we discussed at the beginning of the course o (conservatives, liberals, populists, and libertarians) o and know how to tell one from another. ▯ ▯  Which president was associated with the “New Deal” o FDR  When was the last time the US declared war o When FDR declared war on Japan after Pearl Harbor in 1941  How are the highest positions in the federal bureaucracy filled o About two-thirds of all federal jobs are distributed through a competitive process overseen by the Office of Personnel Management (the federal government hiring office)  Why is voter turnout low in the US o They are held on Tuesday’s when people wok o People are uneducated on issues o People don’t care o Voting is voluntary o Felons are not allowed to vote

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 9, Problem 9.1 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Probability and Stochastic Processes: A Friendly Introduction for Electrical and Computer Engineers
Edition: 3
Author: Roy D. Yates, David J. Goodman
ISBN: 9781118324561

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

Let Wn denote the st1rri of n, iridependent throws of a