In Exercises 73 and 74, find values of and that satisfy the system. These systems arise in certain optimization problems in calculus, and is called a Lagrange multiplier. 2x 2x02y 0y x2 0
Unit 2 Donna Bohanan 2/24/16 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION I. Russia on the Eve of Revolution Russia didn’t industrialize until really late (1880s) but when they it did come, Russia industrialized very quickly. This increased the middle class and generated more wealth for them, which ultimately led to them wanting a strong political voice. Russia was overwhelmingly peasant, rural farmers and the only thing they wanted was to own their own land. Russian peasants were late to be freed from serfdom compared to other European nations and even when they were freed, a Russian politician, Stolypin, still tried to keep them from privately owning land. Many peasants ended up working on the Mir—a farm/land owned by an entire village, so it still wasn’t private. At this time, Russia is still largely aristocracy. Russia mobilized early in WWI on the Triple Entente side but the war proved to be miserable for them. Of the 15,000,000 soldiers, 50% either died or deserted because of how miserable the conditions were. The Tsar, Nicholas and his wife Alexandria Romanov were in power and things got so bad that the Tsar left and went to the front lines of the trenches to supervise and try to motivate his soldiers, which in turn left Alexandria in charge of the country. Railroads were damaged so supplies were hard to transport. Because of all this, Russia began to print more money, which caused bad inflation. This was just a truly miserable time for Russia. The Russian Government had a Legislative Assembly called the Duma. Tsar Nicholas hated the assembly and almost abolished it. The middle class loved it as it made Russia more of a Constitutional Monarchy giving more power to the middle class. The Russian Government was so corrupt and it was almost inoperable. Their son Alexa had hemophilia—would not stop bleeding. His nurse was Rasputin who was a witch doctor. Nicholas didn’t like Rasputin and tried to have him poisoned, shot, and eventually resorted to tying him up, throwing him in a bag and tossing him in the river. II. The March Revolution It started as a strike in St. Petersburg by a large group of women for food riots. By night, there were 200,000 people in the streets protesting food riots, wages, and fair working conditions. Nicholas abolishes the Duma because they were sympathetic of the strike. They agreed, “not to fire on the ground”. Within four days, Tsar Nicholas stepped down from the throne after seeing that he couldn’t control his own army. They chose Kerensky as the new Prime Minister who is responsible for setting up a new government, improving conditions in Russia, and figuring out what to do about WWI. They decide to stay in the war, which creates immense hardships and is not a popular decision. During this time, there is the rise of the soviets that were essentially a parallel government/organization who were way more radical and it is through them the revolution continues. Unit 2 Donna Bohanan 2/24/16 III. The Bolshevik Revolution It broke out in November led by Vladimir Lenin. Lenin was exiled for a while when he was younger but during the provisional government came back. The Germans wanted Russia to be in a revolution to create more turmoil and stop their eastern front. Lenin is a Marxist. Marxist’s predicted that a revolution would rise up and overthrow the proletariat (the working class). Lenin believed one way to fast-forward the revolution is to basically order the proletariat what to do and how things are going to go. Lenin’s right hand men were Trotsky and Stalin. They promise “peace, land, and bread”. Peace- as soon as they get in power they were going to pull out of the war. Land- give land to the people. Bread- solve the food shortage problem in Russia. They also wanted to nationalize industry and make it under government control. Lenin and his followers worked to overthrow the soviets in Russia and St. Petersburg to ultimately overthrow the provisional government. This begins a civil war in Russia, which goes on until 1924 when the Bolsheviks win. IV. Lenin’s Russia after the civil war. People were fleeing the city and Lenin implemented his New Economic Policy (NEP), where he tried to revert the Russian economy to capitalism by giving land to the peasants and returned nationalized business to private companies all in an attempt to make Russia productive again. The new Russian Constitution didn’t have anything in it about a communist party even though they will become the ones to rule the first modern totalitarian state under Stalin. Propaganda posters became huge in an effort to win the Russian people over. They depicted capitalism as a fat, middle class man (negative image to disgust people) and the worker was portrayed as looking dominant, striking, someone you want to be. Since after the revolution there was effectively no middle class, this appealed to the proletariat and helped gain support for Stalin’s efforts to become a communist nation.