In Exercises 1742, write the partial fraction decomposition of the rational expression. Check your result algebraically 4x 2 2x 1x 2x 12x
Week Ten Notes: Tuesday, 29 March 2016 Cancer Rates and Screening I. Changing Rates of Cancer Deaths a. Decline in death rates from cancer since 1990 i. 18% for men ii. 10% for women iii. Why a. Increased awareness about dangers and risks b. Smoking decreased, so less cancer death i. Bigger decline for men because more men smoked than women c. EARLY DETECTION i. We do a better job of catching cancer development early ii. Leads to overdiagnosis 1. Some people are diagnosed too early and their “cancer” cell/nonecancer cells would have never grown into fullblown cancer 2. Gives the false appearance of curing more cancer a. Skews mortality rates II. Cancer Defined a. Cancer = group of diseases characterized by cancer cells that grow and spread i. A tumor begins to develop when a cell experiences a mutation that makes the cell more likely to divide than it normally would ii. At some point, the tumor cells mutate again, producing a dysplasia III. Development of Cancer a. Cell has a genetic mutation b. Hyperplasia This refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells. i. This is not usually precancerous, but some cases of hyperplasia are. c. Dysplasia Cells have an abnormal appearance under the microscope and are disorganized. i. Refers to a precancerous condition in the majority of cases and people with dysplasia are usually checked on a regular basis so that treatment can be initiated if cell changes become severe. d. in situ cancer e. Invasive cancer IV. Neoplasms a. Cancer cells are neoplastic i. Meaning they divide irregularly and more rapidly because some mutation has occurred ii. Neoplastic cells can be either benign or malignant 1. EX: Tumors 2. Benign = localized, noncancerous a. EX: harmless mole 3. Malignant = spread and establish secondary colonies iii. Tumor cells can spread via blood or lymph to establish new tumors 1. Metastases 2. A benign tumor (neoplasm) tends to grow more slowly than a malignant tumor and does not have the capacity to invade surrounding tissue or spread to other areas of the body (metastasis), as cancer can. V. Types of Cancers a. Carcinomas – Cancers of the epithelial tissues i. Skin, lining of internal organs such as the stomach lining b. Sarcomas – cancers of the connective tissues, such as bones, muscles, and cartilage c. Leukemia – cancers that originate in the blood or bloodforming cells such as the bone marrow d. Lymphoma – cancer of the lymphatic system VI. 2013 Estimate US Cancer Cases a. Men i. 854,790 cases 1. Prostate = 28% 2. Lung and Bronchus = 14% 3. Colon and Rectum = 9% 4. Urinary Bladder = 6% 5. Melanoma = 5% 6. Kidney = 5% 7. NonHodgkin Lymphoma = 4% 8. Oropharynx = 3% 9. Leukemia = 3% 10. Pancreas = 3% 11. All other sites = 17% b. Women i. 805,500 cases 1. Breast = 29% 2. Lung and Bronchus = 14% 3. Colon and Rectum = 9% 4. Uterine Corpus = 6% 5. Thyroid = 6% 6. NonHodgkin Lymphoma = 4% 7. Melanoma = 4% 8. Ovary = 3% 9. Kidney = 3% 10. Pancreas = 3% 11. All other sites = 16% VII. 2013 Estimated US Cancer Deaths a. Men i. 306,920 deaths 1. Lung and Bronchus = 28% 2. Prostate = 10% 3. Colon and Rectum = 9% 4. Pancreas = 6% 5. Liver and Bile Duct = 5% 6. Leukemia = 4% 7. Esophagus = 4% 8. Urinary Bladder = 4% 9. NonHodgkin Lymphoma = 3% 10. Kidney = 3% 11. All other sites = 24% b. Women i. 273,430 deaths 1. Lung and Bronchus = 26% 2. Breast = 14% 3. Colon and Rectum = 9% 4. Pancreas = 7% 5. Ovary = 5% 6. Leukemia = 4% 7. NonHodgkin Lymphoma = 3% 8. Uterine Corpus = 3% 9. Liver and bile duct = 2% 10. Brain/ONS = 2% 11. All other sites = 16% VIII. Skin Cancer a. The most common of all cancer types b. Outweighs all cancers combined IX. Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer a. Men i. All sites = 1 in 2 ii. Prostate = 1 in 6 iii. Lung and bronchus = 1 in 13 iv. Colon and rectum = 1 in 19 v. Urinary bladder = 1 in 26 vi. Melanoma = 1 in 35 vii. NonHodgkin lymphoma = 1 in 43 viii. Leukemia = 1 in 63 ix. Oral Cavity = 1 in 69 x. Stomach = 1 in 91 b. Women i. All sites = 1 in 3 ii. Breast = 1 in 8 iii. Lung and bronchus = 1 in 16 iv. Colon and rectum = 1 in 21 v. Uterine corpus = 1 in 38 vi. NonHodgkin lymphoma = 1 in 52 vii. Melanoma = 1 in 54 viii. Ovary = 1 in 71 ix. Urinary bladder = 1 in 87 x. Uterine cervix = 1 in 147 X. Cancer Death Rates a. Men: i. Most of the increase in cancer death rates for men prior to 1990 was attributable to lung cancer. ii. However, since 1990, the ageadjusted lung cancer death rate in men has been decreasing; 1. This decrease has been estimated to account for about 40% of the overall decrease in cancer death rates in men. iii. Stomach cancer mortality has decreased considerably since 1930. iv. Death rates for prostate and colorectal cancers have also been declining. b. Women: i. Lung cancer is currently the most common cause of cancer death in women, with the death rate more than twice what it was 30 years ago. 1. In comparison, breast cancer death rates changed little between 1930 and 1990, but decreased 27% between 1990 2005. 2. The death rates for stomach and uterine cancers have decreased steadily since 1930; colorectal cancer death rates have been decreasing for more than 50 years. XI. Cancers that have Declining Mortality Rates a. Lung i. Among men, but not women 1. Smoking rates have declined a. Men tended to smoke more than women b. Women took up smoking later, and began decreasing later i. Results have not caught up with that decrease yet b. Prostate i. Overdiagnosis 1. Men are treated for prostate cancer when they did not really have it, so more people entered into the survivor category skews the data if they were not truly at risk. c. Stomach i. Why 1. Refrigeration was developed and become a more common fixture in homes 2. Cured meats have become less common thanks to fridges XII. Colon Cancer and Meat Consumption a. High levels of red meat consumption leads to colorectal cancer XIII. World Health Organization’s Warning a. 2015: WHO labeled all processed/cured and red meats as carcinogenic to humans i. Importance for colorectal cancer ii. 50g/day of processed meat increased risk 1. Equivalent to less than two slices of bacon 2. Increased chances of developing colorectal cancer by 18% b. WHO does not like to overstate, so this statement was a huge deal for them to release such a sweeping statement Risk Factors I. Inherent Risk Factors a. Age is the strongest risk factor i. As you get older, the more likely you are to be diagnosed b. Genetics i. Overall, behavioral and environmental risk factors are much stronger than genetic risk factors in cancer ii. Some exceptions with specific genes associated with cancer 1. BRCA1 2. BRCA2 iii. BRCA1 and BRCA2 1. Mutations are rare (<1% of population) 2. Account for 510% of breast cancer and 1015% of ovarian cancers 3. BRCA mutations: 5565% 4. Options for women with BRCA 1,2 a. Watch and monitor b. Prophylactic mastectomy c. Chemoprevention i. Tamoxifen approved for chemoprevention ii. Early trials suggest may be nearly as effective as mastectomy Bold Book Vocabulary: Chapter Ten: Behavioral Factors in Cancer 1. Benign – Limited in cell growth to a single tumor 2. Betacarotene – A form of vitamin A found in abundance in vegetables such as carrots and sweet potatoes 3. Cancer – A group of diseases characterized by the presence of new cells that grow and spread beyond control 4. Carcinogenic – Cancerinducing 5. Carcinoma –Cancer of the epithelial tissues 6. Kaposi’ssarcoma – A malignancy characterized by multiple soft, dark blue and purple nodules on the skin, with hemorrhages 7. Leukemia – Cancer originating in blood and bloodproducing cells 8. Lymphoma – Cancer of the lymphoid tissues, including lymph nodes 9. Malignant – Having the ability not only to grow but also to spread to other parts of the body 10. Metastasize – To undergo metastasis, the spread of malignancy from one part of the body to another by way of the blood or lymph systems 11. Neoplastic – Characterized by new, abnormal growth of cells 12. NonHodgkin’s Lymphoma – A malignancy characterized by rapidly growing tumors that are spread through circulatory or lymphatic systems 13. Oncologist – A physician who specializes in the treatment of cancer 14. Sarcomas – Cancer of the connective tissues 15. Selenium – A trace element found in grain products and in meat from grainfed animals 16. Social Support – Both tangible and intangible support a person receives from other people 17. Synergistic Effect – The combined effect of two or more variables that exceeds the sum of their individual effects.