In Exercises 5764, (a) write the system of linear equations as a matrix equation, and (b) use Gauss-Jordan elimination on to solve for the matrix x x1x1x1x22x2x23x3x3112x1
PSYC Ch. 12: Emotions, Stress and Health James-Lange Theory: the idea that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience. (This theory opposed the commonsense view). Cannon-Bard Theory: proposes that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body’s arousal take place simultaneously. Two-Factor theory: suggests that our physiology AND cognitions create emotions. Emotions have 2 factors: physical arousal and cognitive label. (Explains why 2 people might feel 2 different emotions in the same situation) *ex: some people like scary movies, and some people hate them. Some people hate rollercoasters, some hate them). The cognitive label is taking context into consideration. Autonomic Nervous System: During and emotional experience, our ANS mobilizes energy in the body that arouses us. Cognition and Emotion: What’s the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion) Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking Ex: Going into something that you are scared of with a different attitude to help you not be afraid. Emotion: Expressed emotion: emotions are expressed on the face, by the body, and by intonation of voice. *Is this nonverbal language of emotion universal Detecting Emotion: most of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication. (in a crowd a people, an angry face with pop out more than a happy one) Culture and Emotion: pretty much universal, not learned behavior. (part of our genetic makeup) *Charles Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language, and that’s how they survived. Emotional Influences: based on 3 levels Biological Influences Psychological Influences Social-Cultural Influences (learned) *Shame and guilt are learned behavior (not shown in infants) *Anger is very powerful and the causes of anger include: 1. People generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they’re willful, unjustified, and avoidable. 2. People are also angered by foul odors, high temps, traffic jams, and aches and pains. *Anger builds on anger. Ex: Malcom in the middle scene with the cars. *Happiness. Happy people see world as safer place, make decisions easier, more cooperative, rate job applicants higher, and live a healthier, energized and satisfied lives. * Money and wealth does NOT cause happiness. Feel Good Do Good phenomenon: When we feel happy, we are more willing to help others. Ex: donating to charity. Catharsis: Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.” This hypothesis is not always true because anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming. Facial Expressions: Type A and Type B personalities: Stress: any circumstance (real or perceived) that threatens a person’s well being. Stress can be adaptive. We need some stress, its not always bad. (It’s about how we react and respond to stress that can cause problems) We only need short term stress Too much stress (chronic stress) over time can increase illness and health problems When we feel severe stress, our ability to cope with it is impaired. Stress and Stressors: Stress is a slippery concept. At times it is the stimulus (missing an appointment) and at other times it is a response (sweating while taking a test). Stress is not merely a stimulus or a response. It is a process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges. The Stress Response System: Cannon proposed that the stress response (fast) was a fight-or- flight response marked by the outpouring of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the inner adrenal glands, increasing heart and respiration rates, mobilizing sugar and fat, and dulling pain. It’s important to have a positive cognitive response to be less stressed out. General Adaptation Syndrome: According to Selye, a stress response to any kind of stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes through three phases. Phase1: alarm phase (mobilize resources) Phase 2: Resistance (cope with stressor) Phase 2: Exhaustion (reserves are depleted) Stressful Life Events: Catastrophic Events: Catastrophic events like earthquakes, combat stress, and floods lead individuals to become depressed, sleepless, and anxious. Significant Life Changes: The death of a loved one, a divorce, a loss of job, or a promotion may leave individuals vulnerable to disease, also moving to a new school/making new friends. 18-19 year olds deal with the most stress. Daily Hassles: Rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, and becoming burnt-out are the most significant sources of stress and can damage health. Stress and the Heart: Stress that leads to elevated blood pressure may result in coronary heart disease, a clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle. Personality Types: Type A is a term used for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people. *Type A personalities are more likely to develop coronary heart disease. Type B refers to easygoing, relaxed people. Pessimism and heart disease: Pessimistic adult men are twice as likely to develop heart disease over a 10-year period. Stress and Susceptibility to Disease: A psychophysiological illness is any stress-related physical illness such as hypertension and some headaches. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a developing field in which the health effects of psychological, neural, and endocrine processes on the immune system are studied. B lymphocytes fight bacterial infections, T lymphocytes attack cancer cells and viruses, and microphages ingest foreign substances. During stress, energy is mobilized away from the immune system making it vulnerable. Stress and Colds: People with the highest life stress scores were also the most vulnerable when exposed to an experimental cold virus. Stress and AIDS: Stress and negative emotions may accelerate the progression from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Stress and Cancer: Stress does NOT create cancer cells. Researchers disagree on whether stress influences the progression of cancer. However, they do agree that avoiding stress and having a hopeful attitude cannot reverse advanced cancer. The more calm and less stressed you are, the better your body can deal with recovering. Behavioral Medicine: Psychologists and physicians have developed an interdisciplinary field of behavioral medicine that integrates behavioral knowledge with medical knowledge. Promoting Health: Promoting health is generally defined as the absence of disease. We only think of health when we are diseased. However, health psychologists say that promoting health begins by preventing illness AND enhancing well-being, which is a constant endeavor. Coping with Stress: Reducing stress by changing events that cause stress or by changing how we react to stress is called problem-focused coping. Emotion-focused coping is when we cannot change a stressful situation, and we respond by attending to our own emotional needs. We change how we respond to things that we can’t change. Perceived Control: Research with rats and humans indicates that the absence of control over stressors is a predictor of health problems. It's all about whether we believe that we have control over something. When we believe we can control things, we can endure much worse situations. Explanatory Style: People with an optimistic (instead of pessimistic) explanatory style tend to have more control over stressors, cope better with stressful events, have better moods, and have a stronger immune system. Social Support: Supportive family members, marriage partners, and close friends help people cope with stress. Their immune functioning calms the cardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure. Managing Stress Effects: Having a sense of control, an optimistic explanatory style, and social support can reduce stress and improve health. Ex: choosing the classes you take in college can help you feel more in control and less stressed. Aerobic Exercise: Can aerobic exercise boost spirits Many studies suggest that aerobic exercise can elevate mood and well-being because aerobic exercise raises energy, increases self-confidence, and lowers tension, depression, and anxiety. A great way to deal with stress. Biofeedback, Relaxation, and Meditation: Biofeedback systems use electronic devices to inform people about their physiological responses and gives them the chance to bring their response to a healthier range. Ex: monitoring your heart rate! Fitbit! Relaxation and meditation have similar effects in reducing tension and anxiety. Lowering your heart rate can help lower stress! Life-style Modification: Modifying a Type-A lifestyle may reduce the recurrence of heart attacks. Changing jobs Going to yoga, etc. Spirituality & Faith Communities: Regular religious attendance has been a reliable predictor of a longer life span with a reduced risk of dying.