In Exercises 1324, find the inverse of the matrix (if it exists). 8000010000400005
HDFS Class 3 chapter 1 : developmental research methods, theories of development, why science is NOT objective Developmental Overview psychosocial perspective, development is all about self to other orientation. Understanding who you are as a person, having your own characteristics like your likes and dislikes, skills, right or left handed, etc. As you continue to develop, maturity in the psychosocial sense, becoming someone part of a society has to do with core orientation, influencing others. That’s when you develop a sense of self. Building up self concept, self esteem, and identity. Identity meaning having core values and beliefs that dictate who you are and could become. Also affects your behavior, thinking, actions, and impression you give to others. You start to build a stronger sense of what you hold onto and oppose to. Losing egocentrism for allocentrism meaning you start to understand that there are other perspectives other than your own. Theory of mind, empathy, altruism. Maturity moves through intimacy into generativity meaning sharing the self with others to making others’ wellbeing your focus. instead of focusing on what is going on with your life, you are more considerate in other people’s feelings and their struggles. More willing to sacrifice one’s time and effort to make an impact on others. in culture, we rely heavily on the scientific method Research has an excellent basis for “knowing things” but what’s valid some things are generally known. it’s not arguable it’s just a KNOWN thing that doesn’t involve some scientific experiment to prove that it’s right, from experience. Research studies are ONE very important way to know things but not the only. Other ways are devalued because of our technologically advanced culture that has a way of confirming and people believe what they see so that’s biased in how “valid” some things are. “operate now, save boy’s life” Developmental Research Studies how people change across time, and what agerelated variables are associated with those changes. As someone grows up, what changes are made during those years and the age accumulated. Chronological age is often an “independent variable.” Contexts of development are often “independent variables” as well like are they married etc. Dependent variables are usually selected physical and psychological measures Age, cohort, and time of measurement are central to every study of human development AGE EFFECTS: difference between individuals due to biological, psychological, or sociocultural processes across time. Age comes with experience and is correlated with but DOES NOT cause development. Experience causes development. COHORT EFFECTS: group of people born at the same general time. Differences between individuals that are the result of experiences and circumstances that are unique to a person’s particular “generation” TIME OF MEASUREMENT EFFECTS: differences due to social, environmental, historical, or other events that have occurred at the time that data was collected. Responses/results that were collected that were affected by what was happening at that time that most likely will be different than when the same thing was collected at another time. Research Cross Sectional Research is most frequently used in human development because it’s when you observe people of different ages (cohort) at the same time. group of 20, 30, 40 year olds. STUDY OF AGE DIFFERENCES. how are people of different ages different. Advantages: the sample, people, are readily available in a sense that there’s always someone that is of that specific age that is needed in the study. It’s efficient (publish), cover large age span in short time, good overview of development, and relatively inexpensive. Disadvantages: nothing about individual change, only age differences, total confound of age and cohort effects. Do them bc quick, gross overview of developmental trends. Longitudinal Research is following the same group of people across time to study age changes and links earlier behavior to later outcomes. Advantages are that you can study age changes, early to late linkage, and truly developmental within an individual, one big advantage; only advantage. Disadvantages are that it takes a long time, time effort tracking, only one cohort, time of measurement problems, testretest issues, selection, attrition (drop out), everyone has different opportunities and experiences throughout time. People do it because it’s there… only way to study age changes. Time Lag Designs (research) not very common but it studies people at the same age born at different times. Example: 5 year olds in 2001, then again in 2008. What are the cohort effects/history Sequential Designs combine cross sectional, longitudinal, and time lag components in a single research that are complex, expensive, and rare, and many have problems. RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS. possible to design and recognize “good” but never perfect. various approaches, samples, timing, and specific focus in study Theory a set of concepts and propositions designed to organize, describe, and explain a set of observations bc observations (facts) don’t organize, describe, or explain themselves. Observations tends to correlate with the five senses, something you can smell, see, hear.