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Answer: In Exercises 4762, find the determinant of the matrix. Expand by cofactors using

College Algebra | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781133963028 | Authors: Ron Larson ISBN: 9781133963028 204

Solution for problem 7.4.50 Chapter 7

College Algebra | 9th Edition

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College Algebra | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781133963028 | Authors: Ron Larson

College Algebra | 9th Edition

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Problem 7.4.50

In Exercises 4762, find the determinant of the matrix. Expand by cofactors using the row or column that appears to make the computations easiest. 32110203

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DietaryFats • Lipids:HDL,LDL,VLDL • Triglycerides:Actualfats • Phospholipids:Cellmembrane • Sterols:Cholesterol,testosterone Primaryenergysourceatrest&duringlow-intensityexercises • Mostconcentratedformofenergy Triglycerides Consistof3fattyacidtailsandoneglycerolhead Comprisesnearly95%offatindiet “triacylglycerol”–technicalterm Usuallycontainsacombinationofdifferentfattyacids Oils–predominantlypoly-andmonounsaturatedfattyacids • Vegetableoils–10-13%saturatedfattyacids • Coconutoil–92%saturatedfattyacids,6%monounsaturated,and2% polyunsaturated FattyAcids Chainsofcarbon&hydrogenwithcarboxylgroup(COOH)atoneend • Lengthvariesfrom4-24carbonbonds Saturatedfattyacids • Containsinglecarbonbond • Fromanimals • Solidatroomtemp Unsaturatedfattyacids • 1ormoredoublebonds • Plantsource • Liquidaroomtempandsolidatcoldtemp Monounsaturated • Onedoublebond Polyunsaturated • Twoormoredoublebonds Weconsumeabout16-18carbonbonds UnsaturatedFormation • Cis–groupsonsamesideofdoublebonds -allowsfattyacidstobend -facilitatesmovementacrosscellmembrane • Trans–groupsonoppositesidesofdoublebonds -producedsyntheticallythough“hydrogenation” TransFat Hydrogenation • Usedincommercialfoodprocessingtomakeliquidoilsmoresolid • Doublebondsonunsaturatedfatbroken,andhydrogenatomsadded • Canbefullorpartialsaturation Polyunsaturated • Doublebondbetweencarbonscountedfromlastcarboninchainfarthest fromcarboxylgroupcarbon • Omega-3,6and9 Omega-3fattyacids Alpha-linoleicacid(ALA) • Essentialfattyacid;cannotbemanufacturedbybody • Ex:soy,canola,andflaxseedoils,leafygreenveggies,fattyfish,andfishoil Eicosapentaenoicacid(EPA) • Marine(oily)fish-(salmon,mackerel,sardines) Docosahexaenoicacid(DHA) • Maincomponentofmembranephospholipase • SamesourcesasEPA Omega-6fattyacids Linoleicacid:notmanufacturedbythebody • Essentialfattyacidinmanyvegetableoils Arachidonicacid-foundinanimals • Precursortoprostaglandins&otherrelatedhormonecompounds Recommendedratio:omega-6:omega-3–4:1 • TypicalWesterndietsare15:1(animalfats) Oleicacid-Omega-9monounsaturatedfattyacid(ex.Oliveoil) • Helpsreducetheriskofheartdiseaseifsubstitutedforsaturatedandtrans fat Sterols&Phospholipids Compriseremaining5%offatsinfoods Sterols-ex:cholesterol,cortisol,vitaminD,andsexhormones • Groupoffatswithfourringstructure • ContainsoneormoreOHgroups&nocarbonyl(=C=O)orcarboxyl(COOH) groups Cholesterol–animalfoods • Cellmembranecomponent Phospholipids • Structuresimilartotriglyceridesbutincludesphosphateinglycerolhead withonly2fattyacids • Structuralcomponentofalllivingtissues Digestionoffats Occursprimarilyinsmallintestine Mixwithbilesalts&digestiveenzymesbeforecrossingintestinalcellmembranes Pancreaticlipase-breaksdownlargefattyacids • Monoglyceridesandfreefattyacids Absorptionoffats Exogenouspathway • Crossintomucosalcellsthroughpassivediffusion • Monoglycerideresynthesizedintotriglycerides Short-(4carbon)&medium-(6-10carbon)absorbedasfreefattyacids • Freefattyacidchainsisboundtoalbumininthebloodstream(non dissolvable) Majorityofdietaryfatsarelong-chainfattyacids Triglycerideincorporatedintochylomicronmolecule • Largetransportmoleculecontainingfats Chylomicroncomposition(lipoprotein) • Triglycerides–92% • Phospholipids–12% • Cholesterol–3% • Proteins–2% Chylomicronsreleasedslowlyintolymphaticvessels&enterbloodstream • Presentinbloodstream–1.5hoursaftermeal • Triglyceridemetabolizedbylipoproteinlipase -fattyacidsandglycerolabsorbedbyadiposeandmuscletissuecells -clearedfrombloodstreamafter12hrfast Chylomicronremnants-formedafterremovaloftriglyceridecore • Takenupbytheliverandremovedfromcirculation Storageoffats Esterification • Fattyacidsreformedintotriglyceridesforstorageinadipocytes • StimulatedbyinsulinandmediatedbyLPL Storedassubcutaneous&visceralfat&intramusculartriglycerides • Ex:myocardialandtypeIskeletalmuscle • Ex:Anhydrous Efficientstorageformofenergy Metabolismoffats Lipolysis-Fatsmobilizedfromstorage&brokendownintoglycerol&fattyacids • Catalyzedbyhormone-sensitivelipase(HSL) • Postabsorptivestate,fasting,starvation,stress,andexercise Fattyacids&glycerolcirculateinblood&takenupbyappropriatetissues • Mostofglyceroltakenupbyliver–metabolizedtoglucoseorreassemble intotriglycerides • Freefattyacids–boundtocarrierproteinandtransportinblood Fattyacidsdistributedtoothertissuesinbodyandmetabolized • Utilizationdependentonnumberofreceptorsites&transportmechanisms incellmembrane • Ex:heartmusclecellshavehighercapacityfatutilizationvs.TypeImuscles fiberwhicharehigherthanTypeII Provideahighsourceofenergybutmetabolicprocesscomplexandslow Metabolismofintracellularfats Fattyacidchainsconvertedtofattyacyl-CoA • Occursinoutermitochondriamembrane Fattyacyl-CoAtranslocatetoinnermitochondrialmatrix • Co-Aremovedandfattyacidattachedtocarnitinemolecule • Re-joinedwithCoAonceinsidemitochondria • Catalyzedbycarnitineacyltransferaseenzymes Increaseduptakeincellswithlargenumberofwell-developedmitochondria Beta-oxidation: • Fattyacidchainsconvertedtoacetyl-CoA&entersKrebscycle • Eachacetyl-CoA–generates10ATP;1NADHandFADHR • Ex:Palmitate-icecarbonfat:8acetylCoAand80ATP Ketones Conversionofacetyl-CoAtoketonebodies • Acetoacetate,acetone,&Β-hydroxybutyrate Upto185gofketonesproduceddailybyliver • Supplies2-6%ofbody’stotalenergyneedsafterovernightfast • Plasmalevels–<0.05MO/L Acceleratedfattyacidoxidation • Increasesproductionofketones • Ketosis Plasmalevels–>0.06MO/L Ketoacidosis–associatedwithdiabeticcomaanddeath Starvation,restrictionofcarbs,impairedmetabolism;Ketonesbecometheprimary sourceofenergyforbrain(76weeks,70%ofenergy) Restrictionofcarbsindiet • Gluconeogenesisoccursinfirst2-3days • After3days,glucoseprimarilymanufacturedfromglycerol Affectonathleticperformance • Lowglycogenstores • Inabilitytosustaintrainingandortrainathighintensities

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Chapter 7, Problem 7.4.50 is Solved
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Textbook: College Algebra
Edition: 9
Author: Ron Larson
ISBN: 9781133963028

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: College Algebra, edition: 9. The answer to “In Exercises 4762, find the determinant of the matrix. Expand by cofactors using the row or column that appears to make the computations easiest. 32110203” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 25 words. College Algebra was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781133963028. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 7.4.50 from chapter: 7 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 01/02/18, 09:21PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 9 chapters, and 5750 solutions. Since the solution to 7.4.50 from 7 chapter was answered, more than 243 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

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Answer: In Exercises 4762, find the determinant of the matrix. Expand by cofactors using