×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Probability And Statistics For Engineers And The Scientists - 9 Edition - Chapter 10 - Problem 10.110
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Probability And Statistics For Engineers And The Scientists - 9 Edition - Chapter 10 - Problem 10.110

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

Solved: Studies show that the concentration of PCBs is

Probability and Statistics for Engineers and the Scientists | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780321629111 | Authors: Ronald E. Walpole; Raymond H. Myers; Sharon L. Myers; Keying E. Ye ISBN: 9780321629111 32

Solution for problem 10.110 Chapter 10

Probability and Statistics for Engineers and the Scientists | 9th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Probability and Statistics for Engineers and the Scientists | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780321629111 | Authors: Ronald E. Walpole; Raymond H. Myers; Sharon L. Myers; Keying E. Ye

Probability and Statistics for Engineers and the Scientists | 9th Edition

4 5 1 387 Reviews
30
1
Problem 10.110

Studies show that the concentration of PCBs is much higher in malignant breast tissue than in normal breast tissue. If a study of 50 women withbreast cancer reveals an average PCB concentration of 22.8 104 gram, with a standard deviation of 4.8 104 gram, is the mean concentration of PCBs less than 24 104 gram?

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 March 1, 2016  iclicker: Hispanic paradox: relative to whites, latino/as are less wealthy but have higher life expectancy  Mortality o postponing death by preventing and curing disease  prevent disease from occurring/spreading when they do occur  vaccinations, clean water, sanitation, good nutrition  no physicians needed  examples: resurgence of measles due to anti vacc movement o flint’s lead poisoning  curing disease when people are sick  diagnostic technologic, drugs, skilled physicians o how to measure mortality improvements  life span: oldest age of human survival, potential  almost entirely a biological phenomenon  ex. Jeanne Louise Calment, 122 year old (oldest recorded)  longevity  ability to remain alive, resist death  measured by life expectancy (average expected age at death, currently 71y)  biological and social components o genetic characteristics (bio) o drugs, alcohol, smoking (soc)  people can live a long but not healthy life o mortality and morbidity relationship o social and bio factors and health and mortality  behaviors that shorten longevity:  poor diet: fatty foods, rapid weight gain/loss, excessive alcohol, smoking, drugs  lack of exercise: sedentary activities, sporadic excessive exertion  behaviors that increase longevity  regular exercise, daily breakfast, normal weight, moderate drinking, adequate sleep, no smoking o age and death  J shape curve  youngest and oldest have the highest mortality rates  decling infant death  dehydration is a huge cause  rectangularization of mortality  sudden drop off at a later life expectancy age o gender variations in mortality  women: lower probability of death o causes of death  communicable diseases  bacterial, viral, protozoan  maternal  prenatal conditions  noncommunicable diseases  injuries o “real causes” of death  tobacco, diet and activity, alcohol, microbial agents, toxic agents, disease, guns, violence o Measurements  use rates (for comparison and to see frequency of events)  crude rates: for entire population  E/P *K o E: number of events occurring among residents of a specific area over an accounting period o P: total population o K: constant, usually 1000 or 100,000  crude: don’t account for which people are at risk for the event o population composition matters o useful: easy to obtain the data (think: resources available to poor and less developed countries)  helps in funding, allocations  measures change over time  vs. specific rates: for subgroups  age specific death rate o 1000*(number of deaths in age group/number of people in group) o similar formulas can be refined for race, causes, gender,  pros: can control for age differences and show timing of events  cons: unwieldy lots of data points, difficult to summarize  other common refinements: cause specific, IMR  IMR: infant mortality rate o younger than one year old o a ratio, not a rate o pros: measures development o cons: dependent on stats and reporting; not a rate o general influences: low birthweight, preterm birth, poor prenatal care, low education of mother (less than HS), tobacco, sudden infant death syndrome o refine:  Neo-natal mortality rate (younger than 28 days)  endogenous factors (genetic make up)  post neonatal (between 4 to 52 weeks)  exogenous (external) o survival rate:  Lx+N/Lx March 3, 2016  iclicker: better education of women >> lowered fertility  fertility transition: o high to low (largely under women’s control) o “family building by fate” to “by design” o “not too early, not too close, not too many”  later start, earlier end o terms  fertility: actual birth performance  fecundity: (limits fertility) physiological ability to reproduce  usually greater than actual fertility  impaired fecundity: infertility, sterility  fecund women: can reproduce; sterile woman: can’t  controlling  controlling vs. limiting  controlling: when you star and spacing  limiting: stop/reduce o natural fertility, family planning  natural fertility: number children that can be born without birth control  max level of reproduction  theoretical figure  ~6 to 7 (which is a number that matches the high mortality rates)  hutterites (~11)  method of calculation  start young: menarche, ~15  end old: menopause: 49  no birth control  less than 9 months per pregnancy  18 months between end of one pregnancy and start of another  not deciding on a certain number/continuing through entire reproductive span  totals to about 1 kid per 2.2 years, summing to 16 kids o assuming no multiple births o historically  children are social security and labor source  kids = status and prestige for women  thus women had kids, early and often and abortion/contraception was highly stigmatized o social and economic factors  physiological and biological  marriage traditions  sexual mores  preferences  attitudes  employment and childcare opportunities o (Coale’s) requirements for lowered fertility  control (choice over options)  ideational change  READY  belief in clear advantages of lowered fertility and reason for having fewer kids  more live  invest more in each kid  moms can be healthier and better parents  WILLING  knowledge and mastery of effective contraception  how women get pregnant (when in cycle)  conception delay/prevention  methods: effective  ABLE o perspective (innovation diffusion and social strata)  2 theories of social stratification  culture innovation occurs in the higher social strata and trickles down to the lower strata as they imitate o privilege, edu, resources  rigid social stratification inhibits downward social mobility and diffusion of low fertility ideals o historical dealing with high fertility  infanticide, neglect, inattention (death)  fosterage of kid by another family who needs/can afford it  orphanage (abandon kid to be found by strangers)  Ospedale degli Innocenti (hospital of the innocents) (1400s – 1850)  baby dumbing o proximate determinants of fertility:  how and why we can control fertility  intercourse  forming/dissolution of secual unions o age of entry o permanent celibacy o time period spent after/between unions  divorce, separation, desertion  death of partner/spouse  exposure to intercourse o voluntary abstinence o involuntary abstinence (illness, temporary separation) o coital frequency  conception  exposure to contraception o fecundity/infecundity (voluntary/involuntary) o non/use of contraception  breastfeeding during the 6 months following birth o voluntary fecundity/infecundity (medical treatments, sterilization)  gestation  successful parturition  fetal mortality (involuntary: miscarriage, still births)  fetal mortality (voluntary: abortion)  4 major variables: permanent celibacy, infecundity/fecundity, contraception, fetal morality (voluntary)  indirect factors of fertility o education, income, gender differences (affects proximate determinants o Total Fertility Rate (TFR)  should be 2.1 (in developed countries)  replace the parents plus a bit more for those that don’t make it  “lowest low” <1.3 TFR

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 10, Problem 10.110 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Probability and Statistics for Engineers and the Scientists
Edition: 9
Author: Ronald E. Walpole; Raymond H. Myers; Sharon L. Myers; Keying E. Ye
ISBN: 9780321629111

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

Solved: Studies show that the concentration of PCBs is