Derive the output C(s), error E(s), and actuator M(s) equations for the diagram in Figure P10.4, and obtain the characteristic polynomial.
Developmental Psychology Psyc 250 Study Guide for Exam 1 General: Know the definitions of the key words in each chapter (bolded words) and understand what these definitions mean. For all topics listed for each chapter, simply memorizing the definition will not be beneficial for the exam. You have to understand the concepts and be able to apply the concepts. Chapter 1: • Nature and Nurture • Development: • Multidirectional • Muticontextual (Bronfenbrenner Ecological Model, know the different levels of his model) • Examples of multidisciplinary influences on development • Scientific method • Hypothesis • Know what a correlation is and the issues associated with correlational designs • Experimental designs (why are they useful) • Random assignment • IV • DV • Validity • Reliability • Experimental designs: cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential. Know what they are and the differences between them • Why are there ethics in research Chapter 2: • Why do we have theories • Freud’s Theory • Id, Ego, Superego • Erik Erikson’s Theory • How did Erikson and Freud differ • Freud and Erikson’s significant contributions • What types conditioning did we discuss and how do the learning processes differ from one to another • Piaget’s Theory o How does Piaget view the child o Assimilation, Accommodation, Equilibrium • Sequence of Piaget’s stages • Information-Processing Theories o How is the child viewed • Emphasis of Sociocultural theory and what is the zone of proximal development • Humanism and Maslow’s hierarchy. What are the different levels and what would be an example of each • Evolutionary theory • What perspective do most developmentalists take Chapter 3: • Genotype/phenotype model • Key elements of the model • Know the four fundamental relations • How is the sex of a child determined • Additive genes • Alleles (dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous) Understand how these interact to determine observable traits. • Mendelian inheritance pattern • Polygenic influences (what traits are governed by more than 1 gene) • PKU • Epigenetics • Monozygotic and dizygotic twins • Limitations of heritability • Down Syndrome Chapter 4: • The 3 phases of pregnancy. Know the definitions, what happens during those phases • Cell division • Cell migration • Cell differentiation • Apoptosis • Measures of fetal behavior (movement, fetal heart rate, breathing) • Cognitive tests (what do they tell us) • Teratogens: what are they Know the negative consequences of the different teratogens • Dose-response relation • Preterm births and low birth weight, etc. (definition) • Hispanic Paradox Chapter 5: • Body size change in the first year • Understand percentiles when it comes to height and weight • Head sparing • Neurons, prefrontal cortex, synapses, axon, dendrite, neurotransmitter • Brain Development (experience-expectant, experience-dependent) • Shaken baby syndrome • Know the states of arousal for newborns • What can we say about REM sleep during this time compared to adults • Pros and cons of co sleeping • Perception • Sensation • Habituation • Preferential looking technique • Age differences in visual scanning • Infants face processing abilities • Own race effect • Touch and smell • Intermodal perception • Reflexes • Reaching (prereaching movements) • Self-locomotion • Dynamic systems and motor development • Gross and fine motor skills • Benefits of breast feeding • Importance of immunizations Chapter 6: • Sensorimotor intelligence • What happens in the 6 stages of sensorimotor development according to Piaget • Object permanence • Drawbacks of Piaget’s theory during infancy • Affordances • Mirror neurons • Visual cliff research • Difference between implicit and explicit memories during infancy • When is it best to learn a second language and why • Infant directed talk. What is it How common is it What do infants prefer • Developmental changes in speech perception • What are most likely the first words infants produce • Holophrastic period (know examples) • Overextension (know examples) • Know the differences between the 3 theories of language learning Chapter 7: • Emotional development • Anger and sadness • Separation anxiety • Toddler emotions • Self conscious emotions • Temperament o Definition o Reactivity and self-regulation o Effortful control o Structure of temperament § Easy child § Difficult child § Slow-to-warm up § Hard to classify • Attachment: Styles, strange situation. How do the different children react based on their attachment