Consider the PD control system shown in Figure 10.7.1. Suppose that I = 20 and c = 10. The specifications require the steady-state error due to a unit-step command to be zero and the steady-state error due to a unit-step disturbance to be no greater than 0.1 in magnitude. In addition, we require that = 0.707. Compute the required values of the gains, and evaluate the resulting time constant.
Exam 3 Study Guide 04/19/2016 ▯ Reading Kim et al. 2013 ▯ Main findings Chronic exposure to stressors associated with living in low-income families has long-term negative effects on physiological stress regulatory systems Exposure to chronic stress and socioeconomic adversity produces lasting neurobiological changes Longitudinal- used fMRI Found a significant relation between childhood income and neural functions. Current income level as an adult was not linked to neural activity during emotion regulation Lower family income at age 9, indicating potential failure of amygdala regulation using Reappraisal ▯ ▯ Ch.3 ▯ Ecological systems theory—theoretical perspective Ever-developing/ changing Relationship= interactive and reciprocal Avoids simplistic explanations Acknowledges complex interaction that underlie behavior ▯ Micro- immediate system. Family classroom workplace ▯ Meso- interaction. Family- teacher. Employment ▯ Exo- broader area. Neighborhood community mass media ▯ Macro- cultural political and economic forces ▯ Chrono- changes that occur over time. Historic and individual ▯ ▯ ▯ Family= most important element in child’s life Many forms 6mil 10 mil= gay lesbian bi transgender families Ethnic variation White pop decrease Hispanic pop increase (16.3%) ▯ Different cultures and languages Avoid generalizations Only through genuine interest can a teacher get to know child and family ▯ Poverty 1/5 of US children live in poverty Definition of poverty= 2 times less than what you actually need Working poverty o 41% live in poverty in reality ▯ Make sure children recognize themselves in curriculum don’t “other” ▯ ▯ SES influence on parenting Parents with low SES more likely to be authoritarian and punitive Mothers with higher SES more likely to use authoritative and talk to their children more ▯ ▯ Needs of family Care taking o Set realistic goals for self and child and families o Erik Erikson- adulthood is a period of continued development Empowerment o When families feel confident and competent in abilities as well as their roles as community members children benefit o View parents and teachers as equal’ o Providing relevant education for families can have positive impact on helping them realize their importance and competence ▯ Communication Vital to providing a consistent and congruent experience for kids Best way to get to know family- through individual interaction and contact Informal contact o Talking at drop off and pick up Formal contact o Conferences Should never be impromptu o Home visits o Newsletters, memos, emails Differentiated (languages) o Bulletin boards o Meetings/ group functions o Speakers o Small groups ▯ ▯ Understand differences in family attitudes around autonomy and obedience ▯ Use child’s name accurately ▯ Value multilingual skills (promote home language) ▯ Include multicultural materials ▯ Inclusive atmosphere ▯ ▯ ▯ Family engagement (more than just involvement) Participate in decision making Advocate for children Two way communication Collaboration/ exchange of knowledge Enhanced learning- activities extend from school to home and community Work with families to establish goals for child ▯ Child care providers are dedicated, trained and supported in their desire to engage with families Invite parents to participate o Skills/ hobby expertise to enhance curriculum o With maintenance and construction o As teachers aid Benefits o Child Pride, security o Families 1 hand experience o Teacher Extra hands and eyes On advisory or policy board Family Ed. Enhance parent child relation and improve parenting competence ▯ ▯ Chapter 16: helping children cope with stress ▯ ▯ Stress: demand on the ability to adapt ▯ ▯ Coping strategies vary Depend on temperament, age, and cognitive functioning and learning responses and social factors ▯ ▯ Family stressors- children’s security is rooted in their families Divorce o Children regress behaviorally Poverty o Affects cognitive development and ability to learn o Contribute to behavioral and social emotional problems and affects health Homelessness o Over 1.5 million children o 2x as likely to experience hunger and have moderate to severe health problems Other stressors o New siblings o Death o Visitors o Family members away on business ▯ Child abuse 3 million reports per year (actual estimate is 3 x that) 6 major types o Physical o Sexual o Emotional o Neglect o Abandonment o Substance use ▯ Health stressors Asthma, tonsillectomy, chemo, aftermath of accident Parental health problems ▯ ▯ Death Even toddlers have some understanding of death o Often don’t understand finality, inevitability and causality (internal causes) Needs to be open for discussion—children will need to talk about it Bereavement o Indifferent, anger, withdrawal ▯ ▯ Fears Phobias: intense, irrational, stems directly from a specific event Anxiety: more generalized, vague feeling of uneasiness, no specific source Most difficult to deal with o Common fears: the unknown, abandonment, animals, dark, doctors, heights, school, monsters, nightmares, storms, water ▯ Community violence Decrease violence through advocacy o Help children and families cope ▯ Child care A source of stress Cortisol levels are elevated ▯ Yerkes- Dodson law Some level of stress is good ▯ ▯ Resilient children- deal effectively with vulnerabilities Emotionally responsive parents are important for resilience High positive expectations and understanding of own strength and ability as well as own accomplishments Heightened sense of humor Temperament that elicits positive adult responses Independent and able to bond with adults (teachers) ▯ ▯ Techniques to help children cope A consistent supportive atmosphere Communication o Accurate and appropriate explanations Biblio-therapy o Information, comfort, mutuality, empathy, options for action, reaffirmation for life Relaxation techniques Play ▯ ▯ Self-protection programs (against child abuse) More effective with older kids Preoperational kids don’t understand ▯ ▯ A stressed child likely comes from a stressed family Reassure parents through empathy and caring Know available resources within the community ▯ ▯ Pygmalion Effect Climate o Nicer to people they have higher expectations for Input o Teach more to children they have higher expectations for Response opportunity o Call on and allow more wait time for students they have higher expectations for Feedback o Positively reinforce good answers and work to fix or improve wrong answers for students they have high expectations rather than accepting low quality or even wrong answers from students with whom they have low expectations ▯ Learning through play ▯ ▯ Play is a four letter word Push on academic skills Play is discouraged Didactic learning stressed o Banking method ▯ How did we get here Societal misconceptions We are behind Parents feel pressure Sputnik** Market saturated with electronic toys ▯ ▯ Children from low SES are less ready for school No child left behind o Literacy Have little preschool experiences o Huge variability in quality Teaching content ▯ ▯ Children of low SES Less School ready o Literacy Phonemic awareness Concepts of print o Mathematics One-one correspondence Number games Social skills o Listening to directions, paying attention, solving disputes ▯ Assessment Accountability and assessment are important o Good assessment Integrative and dynamic techniques Can inform us on how well a child is doing Provide information on where they need help ▯ ▯ Sacrificing good pedagogy for curricular goals Pedagogy o Your Philosophy of teaching False dichotomy between play and learning o No child left behind Curriculum pushed down 1 grade material taught in kindergarten etc. Reducing play periods End of social-emotional assessments Increase in literacy and math assessments o Pre-kindergartners left behind/redshirting Beyond the classroom: pressure at home o High stakes testing o Preschool tutoring/testing industry o Educational toy industry o Electronic toys o Electronic book o Less free play more overscheduling ▯ Turning back the tide Focus on play Primates and most young mammals play See children as lifelong learners, not fact-memorizers o Every students succeeds act (2015) ▯ ▯ The evidence for playful learning in preschool Two types of pedagogy o Direct instruction (DI) o Developmentally appropriate pedagogy (DAP) Conceptualizing play and instruction o Free play- no adult facilitation o Guided play- adult goal but child explores on their own o Directed play- told what to do o Direct instruction Two extreme views of children development o Empty-vessel Children learns best through explicit pedagogy School readiness is limited o cognitive learning Teacher-directed o Whole active child Learn through discovery and exploration Learning is intertwined Children seek meaning in all they do o Children can benefit from both approaches ▯ Why consider a whole-child approach with playful pedagogy Academic learning and social development are intertwined o Social competence o Self-regulation Prosocial children vs. impulsive, aggressive children Pathways to early academic readiness o Strong cognitive ability o Average cognitive ability, with above average social skills Social skills can lead to better cognitive skills o Better at getting additional information from teachers o Understanding others point of view o Cooperating with teachers and peers Approaches in Abecedarian, Perry preschool, Chicago CPC o Nurtured strong relationship between teacher and child o Children were active, experimental learners o Teachers adapted the curriculum to the children’s individual needs A working definition of play and play-based learning o Three types of play Object play Developmental pattern Infant REACT to characteristics of object Then EXPLORE the object Then SYMBOLICALLY USE objects Pretend play Low structured v. high structured Physical or rough-and-tumble play Features that characterize free play o Pleasurable and enjoyable o No extrinsic goals o Spontaneous o Involves active engagement o Generally all-engrossing o Often has a private reality o Nonliteral o Can contain certain elements of make-believes The evidence: part 1- academic gain ▯ ▯ Playful learning promotes academic gain: ▯ Language and literacy o Pre-k- Language and reading readiness o K- more diverse vocabularies, more complex o 1 : less reading difficulties Word used during play were learned faster o Numeracy and spatial concepts In 15 minutes of free play Pattern and shape play (21%) Magnitude (13%) Enumeration (12%) Block play with parents Free play Guided play (most language) Preassembled construction ▯ Children reveal what they know when embedded in a playful activity o Numerical board games improve Numerical magnitude Number line estimation Counting Numerical identification Attention and problem solving o Sustained attention o Problem solving Play v adult demonstration v controls Marble experiment Play group got to play with sticks Adult demonstration watch adult assemble stick Control did nothing 2 stick- adult and play out performed control 3-stick adult demonstration didn’t generalized. Play group out performed both other groups o Symbolic representation o Memory development ▯ ▯ Part 2- social development ▯ Play advances social development ▯ Children learn o Social rules o Self regulation o Coping skills o Emotional understanding Intervention studies o Play training Thematic fantasy play Significant gains in IQ Interpreting sequential events Distinguishing fantasy from reality Delaying impulsive behavior Empathizing with others Socio-dramatic play Fantasy discussion No treatment ▯ Direct instruction compared with active learning More child stress Less positive academic outcomes Worse behavioral outcomes Worse motivational outcomes ▯ Academic comparison o Short term advantages o 3-5 year olds: worse in pre-academic skills Worse for boys (testosterone) Socioemotional comparison o Twice the level of stress behavior o Less creative o Slightly more anxious o Less positive about school Motivational comparison o Related their own abilities significantly lower o Lower expectations for success o More dependent on adults for approval o Less pride in accomplishments o Worried more about school Longitudinal studies o 7 times as many emotional problems and 4 times likely to be arrested by age 23 o More stress, leads to more hyperactivity and aggression ▯ Playful learning Hybrid approach o Montessori and tools of the mind curricula o Goal-directed o Guided by teachers, yet responsive to students ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯