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# Management system failures. Refer to the Process Safety

## Problem 99SE Chapter 3

Statistics for Business and Economics | 12th Edition

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Problem 99SE

Management system failures. Refer to the Process Safety Progress (Dec. 2004) study of 83 industrial accidents caused by management system failures, Exercise 2.146 (p. 115). A summary of the root causes of these 83 incidents is reproduced in the following table. One of the 83 incidents is randomly selected and the root cause is determined.

 Management System Cause Category Number of Incidents Engineering and Design 27 Procedures and Practices 24 Management and Oversight 22 Training and Communication 10 Total 83

Source: Based on Blair, A. S. “Management system failures identified in incidents investigated by the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board,” Process Safety Progress, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec. 2004, pp. 232–236 (Table 1).

a. List the sample points for this problem and assign reasonable probabilities to them.

b. Find and interpret the probability that an industrial accident is caused by faulty engineering and design.

c. Find and interpret the probability that an industrial accident is caused by something other than faulty procedures and practices.

2.146 Management system failures. The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) is responsible for determining the root cause of industrial accidents (Process Safety Progress, Dec. 2004). The accompanying table gives a breakdown of the root causes of 83 incidents caused by management system failures.

 Management System Cause Category Number of Incidents Engineering& Design 27 Procedures& Practices 24 Management& Oversight 22 Training& Communication 10 Total 83

Source: Based on A. S. Blair, “Management system failures identified in incidents investigated by the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board,” PROCESS SAFETY PROGRESS, Vol. 23, No. 4, December 2004, pp. 232–236 (Table 1).

a. Find the relative frequency of the number of incidents for each cause category.

b. Construct a Pareto diagram for the data.

c. From the Pareto diagram, identify the cause categories with the highest (and lowest) relative frequency of incidents.

Step-by-Step Solution:

Step 1 of 3:

Given a summary of the root causes of these 83 incidents is reproduced in the below table. One of the 83 incidents is randomly selected and the root cause is determined.

 Management system cause category Number of incidence Engineering and design 27 Procedures and practices 24 Management and oversight 22 Training and communication 10 Total 83

Let E = Industrial accident caused by faulty Engineering and Design.

P =  Industrial accident caused by faulty Procedures and practices.

M = Industrial accident caused by faulty Management and oversight.

T = Industrial accident caused by faulty Training and communication.

a). To list the sample points for this problem and assign reasonable probabilities to them.

The sample points for this problem are E, P, M, T.

The possible probabilities are

= 0.3253

= 0.2892

= 0.2651

= 0.1205

Step 2 of 3:

b). To find and interpret the probability that an industrial accident is caused by faulty engineering and design.

= 0.3253

Approximately 32.53% of all industrial accidents are caused by faulty Engineering and design.

Step 3 of 3

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Management system failures. Refer to the Process Safety

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