The figure shows the graph of In Exercises 35 46, use transformations of this graph to graph each function. Be sure to give equations of the asymptotes. Use the graphs to determine each function s domain and range. If applicable, use a graphing utility to confirm your hand-drawn graphs.
SOCL 2001 [Gremillion] Week 13 Notes PAPRADIGM Framework within which scientists operate In order for us to socially interact, we draw upon common knowledge we assume as cultural Science, at a particular point in time, draws upon a set of knowledge that is assumes in scientific o Creates “normal science” Science is conducted within an existing paradigm Process of bleeding people in order to heal them o 150-200 yrs. ago isn’t a problem at all o Now, this seems barbaric Darwin’s theory is a common set of knowledge that other things in science are built upon Idea of a DNA helix structure was a revolution in science o Changed the way scientists and doctors thought about health problems ▯ ▯ ▯ THOMAS KUHN Argues… o Scientific revolutions (paradigm shifts) accrue when enough anomalies accrue during the practice of normal science to challenge the existing paradigm ▯ ▯ ▯ PARADIGM SHIFT Photo of a duck/rabbit o Kuhn highlights that once we accept a new form of knowledge, we cannot go back to thinking a different way or perspective o Once you set your mind thinking this as a duck or rabbit, it’s hard to make your mind go back and see it as the other way The evidence isn’t necessarily erased – you can restructure it in a different way Ex. Black Plague o People had all kinds of ideas why it occurred o Now, when we think about cleanliness.. We see that people living in unclean circumstances and living in close quarters with each other, we can see how the fleas on rats were able to spread this disease Ex. How we see the world o In early days, we thought the world was centered on the earth itself We thought space and heaven were literally above us In 1543, someone said the sun is the center and we revolve around it It reshaped the way people thought about the old info Did not just destroy the old info Paradigm shift is both social and scientific This new knowledge spreads out to people and becomes things we discuss in our daily lives Kuhn’s Paradigm shifts o These show how society is changed because of the way science changes 1 wave [1785 – 1845] Iron Water power Mechanization Textiles nd Commerce 2 wave Steam power Railroad Steel Cotton 3 wave Electricity Chemicals Internal combustion engine 4 wave Electronics Aviation Space Petrochemicals th 5 wave Digital Networks Biotechnology Software information – technology th 6 wave [2020 –] Sustainability Radical resource productivity Whole system design Biomimicry Green chemistry Industrial ecology Renewable energy Green nanotechnology o The way you see technology is often limited based upon the common knowledge of this ▯ ▯ ▯ NORMATIVE VIEW OF SCIENCE Science follows objective rules of evidence and is unaffected by the personal beliefs or values of scientists In practice, social factors affect science o (1) Funding It takes a lot of money to get equipment down to NOLA for post-Hurricane Katrina studies o (2) Gov’t policies o (3) Interest groups o (4) International competition ▯ ▯ ▯ BOUDNARY WORK Work done to maintain the border between legitimate and non-legitimate science Either within a specific scientific discipline or between disciplines o Ex. How life evolves or what happens after life o The internet or technology complicates this because we have a conformation bias When you already know the conclusion you want to come to, you’ll search online for others who confirm that GLOBAL WARMING Rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, higher global average temperatures This relates to the change in scientific paradigms o Change in perspective on what people used to think vs. what we think now on global warming Scientific consensus almost doesn’t matter in a lot of cases – what does matter might be the result from social interaction and/or what people think about it CONCLUSION Science and society ARE related to each other Not trying to put down scientific method o But… Kuhn points out – science is limited by lots of other social factors that can influence what we think is being possible in a specific point and time What we think in the future can be changed from what our parents think because of the change in scientific culture and ideas Science and society work hand in hand with each other