A universal statement asserts that a certain property is for .
Political Community 3.22.16 Globalization & Political Community 3.24.16 Aristotle on Political community Various associations arise naturally out of diverse but complementary needs of people living in proximity of one another o In his day, politics was organized into small citystates, small units o For him, these are the building blocks for political life Political communities must be large enough to be nearly selfsufficient o Capable of providing inhabitants access to a “good life” “When several large villages are united in single complete community, large enough to be nearly or quite selfsufficing, city comes into existence for sake of good life” “every city is community of some kind, & every community is established w/ view to some good; mankind always acts in order to obtain that which they think good” The community should take priority over individual o When isolated, individual isn’t selfsufficient o Must begin w/ conception of a whole in order to understand common good Madison, Federalist Paper #10 Argument o A well designed union can overcome the violence of faction o Advocates for a centralized gov’t to rule over expansive territory & increasing population o Factions would undermine concept of “union” o There must be a connection btw gov’t & society o Federal gov’t can shape national identity, represent common interests that rise above factions Factions arise because: “as long as connection subsists btw one’s reason & his selflove, his opinions & his passions will have reciprocal influence on each other, & former will be objects to which latter will attach themselves” You can’t stop them; you can only hope to contain them. o Given freedom of expression, people will form factions. o Causes of factions cannot be cured; it’s in the nature of man A gov’t apparatus should be designed to control the effects of factions **“Most common & durable source of factions has been various & unequal distribution of property” o Creditors vs debtors, landed vs manufacturing vs mercantile vs moneyed interests What is the role of gov’t o The regulations of these various & interfering interest forms principle task of modern legislation Republican vs democratic governance o Pure democracy (small number of citizens) & republican democracy (scheme of representation) Small/pure democracy breeds less faction but is more prone to tyranny of majority Large/republican gov’t breeds more factions but less likely for one majority to rule others (multiple parties) Madison continued: Fear of the multitudes Political Community 3.22.16 Globalization & Political Community 3.24.16 “rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade whole body of union than a particular member of it” Smith, on civic identities Contrary to Aristotle: no political community is “natural” How civic identities are created & sustained o Citizenship laws designating criteria for membership in political community o Narratives/mythologies of civic collectivity Create collective civic identity (artificial, arbitrary, contested, changing) American civic identity o City upon the hill (exceptional) o American dream (universal) o Doesn’t matter whether these myths are true or false; rather, are they effective or ineffective Who do they include/exclude Based on what ascriptive attributes (ethnic, religious, class) or political principles (liberal, egalitarian) Anderson “Imagined Communities” India Citizenship is a birthright, patriotism is an attribute Globalization & Political Community 3.24.16 Globalization & political community Defining globalization (integration/homogenization) Appadurai (heterogenization) o Ethnoscapes People moving across borders; they bring their religion, language, food, culture, etc The moving of people and cultures across borders o Technoscapes Movement across states of technology (can be basic, not necessarily complex) o Financescapes Capital, investment Movement of investments across the world o Mediascapes Movement of news I.e. financial crisis partially occurred because news spread o Ideoscapes Movement of ideas All of these happening at the same time, but not necessarily at the same pace Conjunctive/disjunctive landscapes; what challenges does globalization pose for political community Political Community 3.22.16 Globalization & Political Community 3.24.16 NYT “on trade, angry voters have a point” by Eduardo Porter th March 15 , 2016 Held on Global Social democracy Global community as social democracy o Expanding liberal rights/social safety nets/economic & environmental regulation o Mediating between neoliberalism & antiglobalization o Economy (trade, investment, development), governance (representation, social & environmental issues), law (human rights & international law), security (peacemaking & peacekeeping forces) Colonialism Arendt’s piece Refugees don’t know where they stand Don’t know who to identify themselves as Optimistic about their ability to assimilate o But they can be excluded in a heartbeat How can you belong one second and be excluded the next Her argument is basically a challenge to us