The data in the next table resulted from an experiment that used a completely randomized design.
a. Use statistical software (or the appropriate calculation formulas in Appendix C) to complete the following ANOVA table:
b. Test the null hypothesis that µ1 = µ2 = µ3, where µi represents the true mean for treatment i, against the alternative that at least two of the means differ. Use α = .01.
Week 5: Classical vs Operant Conditioning: (2/22, 2/24, 2/26) how do we know we are learning “expectation” -because, the conditioned response (CR) is often quite different than the unconditioned response (UCR) we learn by Prediction! What type of condition helps us to predict o Unconditioned stimulus comes first before the unconditioned stimulus =good prediction o In a Redundant scenario= there are redundant predictors which the conditioned stimulus rarely appears= an idea that is already established ==blocking the new conditioned stimulus o Emotion can be Classically Conditioned Operant Conditioning: -Thorndike’s Law of Effect -the responses that are produces to have a good effect will then be repeated. Ex: the cat opens the door to get out of the box and reaches the food -the response that produce negative effects will then not be repeated. Ex: Cat scratches at the box, thus not figuring out how to escape Skinner’s Operant Conditioning -created an experiment using a rat and in a box. The rat places in the box, learned how to push down a lever and release a food pellet. BehaviorConsequences --Don’t get hung up on the ideas of “good” and “bad” -in this context, “consequence” and “punishment” are not always implying a negative action. Instead the act of something in response to a stimuli. In the same way, “positive” meaning that there is the add on of a new stimulus and “negative” meaning that a stimulus is being taken away. Reinforcement Punishment Positive Positive (get the stimulus) (the arrival of a stimulus) Reinforcement Punishment Negative Negative (remove the stimulus) (the taking away of a stimulus) Q #1: will the behavior increase Q #2: As a result of behavior, or decrease (reinforce or are they receiving (positive) or punish) having something taken away (negative) (these are examples used from class) Ex: Every time Jane gets an A on her test, her parents take her out to dinner; hoping this will encourage her to continue getting A’s. -using the table, how would you classify this scenario Answer: Positive Reinforcement “Jane gets an A” = behavior “parents take her out to dinner” = consequence (result) -Jane is being given something (dinner) in a positive way. Ex: When Katie gets an A on her test, her parents allow her to skip doing the dishes for a week; which is a chore she really dislikes. Answer: Negative Reinforcement = by getting an A (behavior continue) her parents removed the chore (negative consequence- b/cuz its being taken away) -“gets an A on her test” = behavior -“skip doing the dishes” = consequence Implementing Operant Processing: o Trying to choose a behavior (less successful behaviors with successful one) -Eliciting Behaviors: need to address that behavior a. Prompting- verbal reminders: telling a kid to say “thank you” -behavior -> you give the consequence b. Shaping – reinforcing successful closer to the desired response until it occurs Ex: teaching dog a trick (rolling over) that has multiple steps Ex: dancing, athletics (when a person is stuck and need help to further shapes it) -Scheduling Reinforcement: -continuous reinforcement ------(partial schedules)----- extinction (to establish/teach a new behavior) (sometimes) (Never get reinforced)