A positive test charge is placed in an electric field. In what direction should the charge be moved relative to the field, so that the charge experiences a constant electric potential? The charge should be moved (a) perpendicular to the electric field, (b) in the same direction as the electric field, (c) opposite to the direction of the electric field.
Goals • To understand light rays and wavefronts • To analyze reflection and refraction of light • To understand total internal reflection • To analyze the polarization of light The nature of light • Light has properties of both waves and particles. The wave model is easier for explaining propagation, but some other behavior requires the particle model. • The rays are perpendicular to the wave fronts. Reflection and refraction • In Figure the light is both reflected and refracted by the window. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Specular and diffuse reflection • Specular reflection occurs at a very smooth surface (left figure). • Diffuse reflection occurs at a rough surface (right figure). • Our prima