Statistical Literacy When we use a normal distribution to approximate a binomial distribution, why do we make a continuity correction?
Class notes: week of 02/22 2/26/16 10:02 PM Blood: • It's a type of connective tissue in which cells are separated by plasma • Plasma: liquid portion (90% is water) of blood ( makes up 55% of blood)that includes nutrients, waste, salts, and proteins. Types of plasma proteins: 1. Albumins: contribute to the plasma's osmotic pressure (water pressure, like little sponges that absorb the water so that it doesn't leak out of veins), found in egg whites 2. Globulins: antibodies, hemoglobin(provide oxygen), etc (like an archer's arrows that are made of globulin, that attack any virus or pathogen) 3. Fibrinogen: forms blood clots when activated, blood clots are important so that when we cut ourselves we don't keep on bleeding forever. o Test question: which proteins are associated with blood • Formed element: includes red and white blood cells and platelets, make up 45% of blood • Platelet: aka thrombocyte, cell fragments of Megakaryocyte, involved in clotting • Functions of blood: 1. Primary transport medium: carries oxygen, CO2, hormones, nutrients, etc 2. Defends against pathogens and helps seal damaged blood vessels: antibodies, phagocytes and platelets do this 3. Regulatory functions: regulates temperature, osmotic pressure, buffers to stabilize the pH 7.4 • Red blood cells: aka RBC, erythrocyte. Contains the protein hemoglobin. Produced in red bone marrow. It looks like a pizza dough because it has a larger surface area this way • • Hemoglobin: has iron and carries oxygen. Each one contains 4 heme groups (little proteins) and each heme group can transport 1 oxygen molecule, so one hemoglobin protein carries 4 oxygen molecules. Approx. 280 million hemoglobin molecules in one red blood cell. Carbon monoxide binds more strongly to the heme than oxygen, this is bad because it leads to us not being able to breathe in situations like being in a garage with car running and door closed. • Anemia: insufficiency in the oxygen carrying ability of blood, due to shortage of hemoglobin. Females are more likely to be anemic because of the loss of blood they experience every month in their period (approx. 35 ml each period) • If you go to a higher place like a mountain where there's less oxygen, there's gonna be a low level of oxygen in the blood so the kidney will produce a hormone called erythropoietin that will cause stem cells to increase red blood cell production in red bone marrow so that the blood's oxygen level returns to normal (see picture below) • Clotting: process of blood coagulation, usually initiated when injury occurs 1. Blood vessel is punctured 2. Platelets congregate and form a plug 3. Platelets and damaged tissue cells release prothrombin (like scissors, super sharp) activator (this activator will "remove the safety lock on the scissors, and turn prothrombin intro thrombin) which initiates a cascade of enzymatic reactions 4. Fibrin threads form and trap red blood cells • Blood transfusions: whole blood of just a component of blood (red blood cells, etc), introduced into the bloodstream • Agglutination: clumping of red blood cells due to reaction of antigens on red blood cell surface and antibody in the plasma. Happens when two blood types that aren't supposed to mix, mix during a transfusion, causes the blood to become more solid instead of a liquid form. Class notes: week of 02/22 2/26/16 10:02 PM Cont.: Blood • • ABO blood typing: based on the presence or absence of 2 possible antigens (Type A antigen or type B antigen). Depending on the blood type, the rbc produces different antibodies. • Type A: red blood cells have type A surface antigens. Plasma has anti-B antibodies that look like Y • Type B: rbc have type B surface antigens, plasma has anti-A antibodies that look like a moon. • Type AB: rbc have both type A and type B surface antigens, and the plasma does not have type A or type B antibodies. • Type O: rbc have neither type A or type B surface antigens, plasma has both anti-A and anti-B antigens. • Test question: what blood types can safely donate blood to a type O Only a person with type O, because type O has antibodies against type A and type B. • • • When your antibodies attack your own rbc, then you have an autoimmune disease. • Rh blood groups: based on the presence of Rh factor (antigen) on rbc • Rh-: has antibodies against Rh+ • Rh+: 85% of Americans are this • Hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN): happens in a newborn when the mother is Rh- and the father is Rh+. In a normal pregnancy no blood is mixed between mother and baby, but when the baby is coming out, things can get messy and blood can mix. So if the baby is Rh+, the blood from the mother containing Rh- will have antigens that attack the baby's rbc. • RhoGAM is an antibody that is administered around 7 months into the pregnancy, contains small amount of antibodies that attack the baby's rbc if they leak into the mother's blood, quickly so that the mother doesn't produce many antibodies that attack the baby, so both the baby and the mother are safe. Cardiovascular system: • Organ system in which blood vessels distribute blood by the pumping action of the heart. • Parts: 1. Heart: muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity. Rhythmic contractions maintain blood circulation 2. Blood vessels: closed delivery system that begins and ends at the heart. • Functions: 1. Contraction of the heart generates blood pressure (moves blood) 2. Blood vessels transport blood from heart to arteries (big transport vessels, like the turnpike or the i-95), capillaries (where all the action takes place) and veins (to go back to the heart) 3. Gas exchange occurs at the capillaries (CO2 is picked up and O2 is dropped off--because the cells need the O2 for cellular respiration). Nutrients are delivered to the cells by blood, while the blood picks up their waste. 4. Heart and blood vessels regulate blood flow, according to the body's needs • It has to send blood to the kidneys for the blood to be cleansed, to the digestive system to pick up the nutrients from the food we ate, to the respiratory system to pick up the oxygen (because after taking oxygen to the cells, the blood leaves without oxygen and needs more) • Types of blood vessels: 1. Arteries: they conduct blood away from the heart, they carry oxygenated blood (has one exception) 2. Capillaries: smallest of the blood vessels (it has to be small so that diffusion can take place), takes oxygen to the cells and exchanges it with CO2, "where all the action happens" 3. Veins: they return blood towards the heart. Always have deoxygenated blood (has only 1 exception) (the little dots in the purple parts are nucleuses) • Class notes: week of 02/22 2/26/16 10:02 PM Cont.: Cardiovascular system • • Capillaries: found between veins and arteries, very small and diffusion happens very easily and quickly in them • Smallest blood vessels • In some cases, only one endothelial cell forms the entire circumference (they are just 1 cell thick) • They provide for exchange of materials like gases, nutrients, etc by diffusion. • Arterial system: the arteries near the heart withstand and smooth out large pressure fluctuations, they expand and recoil as the heart beats to propel blood onward • Pulmonary Artery: exception to the rule, it carries deoxygenated blood (takes it to the lungs) • Pulmonary vein: only vein that is oxygenated in the body • Arterioles: small arteries, • When the muscle fibers contract, the vessel constrict; when the muscle fibers relaxes, the vessel dilates. • Constriction or dilation controls blood pressure • They lead into the capillary bed • Capillary bed: interweaving network of capillaries • Pre-capillary sphincter: controls blood flow through a capillary bed (sends it through something like a shortcut). It's regulated by vasomotor nerve fibers and local chemical conditions. • Arteriovenuous shunt: enables blood to pass directly from an arteriole to a venule (the shortcut mentioned above) • Veins: same 3 layers as arteries, but less smooth muscle and connective tissue, they have thinner walls and they have valves • Venous valves: they resemble semilunar valves in heart in structure and function, so what they do is prevent blood to go backwards. They are most abundant in veins of the limbs. They depend on our movement, if we cross our legs we smush some veins and the blood is forced to go back to the heart. • Varicose veins: veins that have become dilated because of damaged valves. They can be influenced by: heredity, obesity, prolonged standing, pregnancy (they go away after pregnancy). Eg: hemorrhoids, they are varicose veins in the anus. • Venules: small veins that drain blood from the capillaries. • Heart: muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity. Like a double pump. Its rhythmic contractions maintain blood circulation. Left side is systemic (body), right is to the lungs, that blood doesn't mix. Has 4 chambers (left and right atriums and ventricles). Authorhythmicity: it beats on its own and never gets a rest. • Myocardium: composed of cardiac muscle formed by muscle fibers tightly joined together by intercalated disks (like puzzle pieces): o Gap junctions: aid in simultaneous contractions of cardiac fibers o Desmosomes: protein fibers that prevent overstretching of the heart • Pericardium: protective membrane that surrounds the heart and secretes pericardial fluid (a lubrication fluid that allows the heart to move freely without friction) • Septum: wall that separates the right and left sides of the heart, so that oxygen poor blood and oxygen rich blood never mix • Atrium: superior chambers (left and right) that receive blood • Ventricles: inferior chambers (left and right) • Atrioventricular valves (AV): located between the atrium and the ventricles and prevent backflow of blood into the atria when ventricles are contracting: o Tricuspid: right side of the heart o Bicuspid: aka Mitral valve, left side • Semilunar valves: prevent blood return into the ventricles after contraction • Heart strings (chordae tendineae): prevent the flaps of the valves from overextending, like a tight seal, prevent valves from inverting. • Sound of the heart is called "Lub-Dub": Lub is the AV valves slamming shut, the Dub is when the semilunar valves slam shut. • Heart murmur: a leaky AV valve, a sight swishing sound after the "Lub" • Systemic circuit: blood vessels transport oxygenated blood from left ventricle to body, deoxygenated blood returns to right atrium • Pulmonary circuit: blood vessels that take deoxygenated blood from right vent to lungs, oxygen blood returns to left atrium • Coronary artery: supplies blood oxygen and food to the wall of the heart (septum). If a person eats a lot of fatty foods, plaque accumulates and creates a blocked coronary artery results in a myocardial infarction. To solve this, surgeons create a bypass surgery. o • Cardiac cycle: one heart beat, composed of two parts: o Systole: contraction o Diastole: relaxation • When doctors take blood pressure, they look for the first beat and the last beat after the thing around the arm is loosened and the blood starts going to the arm again. The result will show (for example): 120/80 pressure, 120 is systole and the 80 is diastole. •