Statistical Literacy In a statistical test, we have a choice of a left-tailed test, a right-tailed test, or a two-tailed test. Is it the null hypothesis or the alternate hypothesis that determines which type of test is used? Explain your answer.
Chapter 7: Perception, Attention and Memory in Early Childhood Perceptual Development Analytic Versus Holistic Processing Children favor holistic when younger o Focus on size an shape (global similarity) o Adults process holistically in some conditions Face recognition, inverted faces Harder to distinguish parts of inverted faces Pattern vs size/shape judgments in grouping stimuli Pellicano and Rhodes o Special facial processing o Holistic o Example of a domain specific, encapsulated process Object Recognition Hindsight bias in adults o Hindsight bias happens when we overestimate our ability to predict an event beforehand based on knowledge we obtain after the event. o In hindsight people will often think “they knew it all along” Hindsight bias in children o Fish experiment (blur, noise, parts) o Children are extra prone to hindsight bias, say a third party will see the fish way earlier than the children do in the test Attention and Executive Functioning Exec functioning o Selective attention: ability to allocate, or direct, mental resources to a particular task o Divided attention: ability to divide attention across two tasks (multi- tasking) o Practice effect: When we become skilled at a process it is easier to divide our attention Development of attention spans o Vigilance task (selector/distractor task o Children watch a continuous stream of stimuli o Target occurs on 25% of trials, Distractor occurs on 75% of trials o Older children better than younger** Sustained attention o What children did o Children participated in 3 tasks o Watched a videotape of a puppet show, Played with toys,Performed in a laboratory reaction-time task, Children’s ages were 30, 42 and 50 months o Results: (Look at graph) Inhibitory Control Governed by prefrontal cortex Belongs to set of abilities needed for executive functioning Self regulation Planning Monitoring Modifying behavior Maintaining attentional focus Red light green light game/ Simon says game Memory Development Memory Capacity Memory Strategies and Metacognition Event Memory and Scripts Autobiographical Memory Eyewitness Memory Media Usage in the Preschool Years