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Meteorology: Storms Weatherwise magazine is published in

Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780618949922 | Authors: Charles Henry Brase, Corrinne Pellillo Brase ISBN: 9780618949922 213

Solution for problem 7 Chapter 9.1

Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition

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Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780618949922 | Authors: Charles Henry Brase, Corrinne Pellillo Brase

Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition

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Problem 7

Meteorology: Storms Weatherwise magazine is published in association with the American Meteorological Society. Volume 46, Number 6 has a rating system to classify Noreaster storms that frequently hit New England states and can cause much damage near the ocean coast. A severe storm has an average peak wave height of 16.4 feet for waves hitting the shore. Suppose that a Noreaster is in progress at the severe storm class rating. (a) Let us say that we want to set up a statistical test to see if the wave action (i.e., height) is dying down or getting worse. What would be the null hypothesis regarding average wave height? (b) If you wanted to test the hypothesis that the storm is getting worse, what would you use for the alternate hypothesis? (c) If you wanted to test the hypothesis that the waves are dying down, what would you use for the alternate hypothesis? (d) Suppose you do not know if the storm is getting worse or dying out. You just want to test the hypothesis that the average wave height is different (either higher or lower) from the severe storm class rating. What would you use for the alternate hypothesis? (e) For each of the tests in parts (b), (c), and (d), would the area corresponding to the P-value be on the left, on the right, or on both sides of the mean? Explain your answer in each case.

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Chapter 7 North Africa/Southwest Asia  Geographic Features  Islam (and related culture)dominate  Strong internal divisions within countries (ex: Lebanon and Iraq)  Some nations without states (ex: Palestinians, Kurds, Berbers, people of Western Sahara)  Some boundaries date from the colonial era = some current problems  Name  “Middle East”­ only ‘east’ from Europe  “Arab World”­ what about Turkey, Iran  “Muslim World”­ what about Israel  Best name: North Africa/ Southwest Asia  Dry World  Major deserts… so most live near water  Oil  More than half of the world’s oil in Middle East th  In early 20 century, Western countries bring $$$ and tech to local oil industry  Oil brings urbanization, infrastructure  Islam: Background  Begins in 7 century Arabia  Holy book is the Quran = revelation of God (Allah) to the prophet Muhammed  Muhammed and successors are religious AND political AND military leaders… create Islamic country (caliphate) across the known world  Caliphate breaks up into many groups  SUNNI ISLAM (most) and SHIA ISLAM (less)  Spatial Diffusion  The way idea, inventions, and cultural practices spread through a population in space and time  Ex: Islamization  Background  After WW1: the Ottoman “Caliphate” divided up by Europe  After WW2, the Jewish country of Israel is created from British/UN colonies  Vocabulary differences!  ISLAMIC­ describing Islam, culture, etc.  ISlAMISTS­ political caliphate­meaning  Arab Spring: 2011­present  Past: many M.E. countries led by corrupt totalitarian leaders that crack down on society and on Islamists  High unemployment, low median age  Starts in Tunisia, protest follow, spread throughout M.E.  Regimes overthrown in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen; uprising in Syria, etc.  First seen as ‘democracy’, but now what  Islamist takeover US perspective… Regions of North Africa/Southwest Asia  Egypt  Centered on the NILE river valley and delta  Very populous country in the M.E. (80m)  95% live < 12 miles of the Nile  Capital Cairo  Sudan  Civil war… Muslim north and Christian south (split)  Another conflict in west Sudan, in Darfur  The Maghreb  Western North Africa (the Maghreb)  Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco  Places where African, European and Arab cultures meet  Rooftop architecture  Beirut, Lebanon  Civil war between four different religions  Iraq  Mixture of 3 big groups:  Sunni Muslims  Shi’a Muslims  Kurds  Border of Iraq drawn by Europeans after WW1  Kurds  Stateless nation­ ethnic group without a country  Kurds one of the largest stateless nations in the world  Israel and Palestine  Israel, the Jewish state, established in 1948  Local Arabs (“Palestinians”) oppose  Many wars: Israel keeps winning  Ownership vs. Control  Arabian Peninsula  Source and focus of Islam (including city of Mecca­ Holiest in Islam)  Most oil deposits on earth  Saudi Arabia, and other “Gulf States” (Kuwait)  Environmentally Dominated by desert  Politically dominated by Saudi Arabia  Economic activities “ across” the peninsula ( ex: inland Riyadh)  Massive improvements in health care, housing, education, etc.  Demographic: 60% of area’s population under the age of 21  Turkey  Sits between Europe and Asia  Modernization and Industrialization  Growing Islamist movement  Iran  Theocracy­ controlled by Islamic leaders  Shi’a Islam (Shi’ite)  Central Asian Countries  Because of past Soviet control, some Soviet/ Russian cultural influence today  Afghanistan  1980s: poor, rural Afghan fighters fight Russians for years  Soviets leave Afghanistan, but in the 1990s, the hardline Islamist TALIBAN take over  Taliban impose strict rules on society  Burqas, beard patrol, kites, musical instruments, girls’ schools… All information comes from Dr. Patrick Hagge

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Chapter 9.1, Problem 7 is Solved
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Textbook: Understandable Statistics
Edition: 9
Author: Charles Henry Brase, Corrinne Pellillo Brase
ISBN: 9780618949922

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