Chrysler Concorde: Acceleration Consumer Reports stated that the mean time for a Chrysler Concorde to go from 0 to 60 miles per hour was 8.7 seconds. (a) If you want to set up a statistical test to challenge the claim of 8.7 seconds, what would you use for the null hypothesis? (b) The town of Leadville, Colorado, has an elevation over 10,000 feet. Suppose you wanted to test the claim that the average time to accelerate from 0 to 60 miles per hour is longer in Leadville (because of less oxygen). What would you use for the alternate hypothesis? (c) Suppose you made an engine modification and you think the average time to accelerate from 0 to 60 miles per hour is reduced. What would you use for the alternate hypothesis? (d) For each of the tests in parts (b) and (c), would the P-value area be on the left, on the right, or on both sides of the mean? Explain your answer in each case. For 914, please provide the following information. (a) What is the level of significance? State the null and alternate hypotheses. Will you use a left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed test? (b) What sampling distribution will you use? Explain the rationale for your choice of sampling distribution. What is the value of the sample test statistic? (c) Find (or estimate) the P-value. Sketch the sampling distribution and show the area corresponding to the P-value. (d) Based on your answers in parts (a) to (c), will you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis? Are the data statistically significant at level a? (e) State your conclusion in the context of the application.
Under Common Law Doctrine Contributory Negligence: If plaintiff in any way caused his injury, he was barred from recovery. Comparative Negligence: Computes liability of plaintiff and defendant and apportions damages Most states have replaced contributory negligence with the doctrine of comparative negligence Strict Liability: They are responsible even if they weren’t liable Product liability: Burden to prove the product was defective and that it caused injury Employment Law First hire employee, then conduct a bargaining to form a contract Employees used to not care about employees, but now it’s changing At-Will Employment: Serve at-will of employer; employer has right to terminate relationship at anytime At-Will Exceptions Employees of the state/city: Governed by civil service rules Employees with individual contracts: Highly compensated executives Union Employees with Union Contracts: Reps have collective bargaining agreement, which contains “just clause” that says ER must have a good reason to terminate that employee. Agency: Principle and Agent; two party relationship where one party acts for other; agency serves as important social function; increases commercial activity Agency is a “fiduciary” relationship based on trust and confidence Agent’s Duties to the Principle 1. Loyalty: Duty as fiduciary (no conflict of interest) o May not compete with principle or disclose confidential information 2. Notification: All matters concerning subject matter of agency go to principle Obedience 3. Act with Care and Skill Principle’s Duties to the Agent 1. Compensation (expressed/implied) 2. Reimbursement & Indemnification 3. Cooperation 4. Safe Working Conditions Doctrine of Respondeat Superior: Employer is liable for employee’s negligent torts committed within agent’s “course and scope” of employment. Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964: Prohibits discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, and gender/sex. Antidiscrimination laws changed the at-will rule ER’s may terminate EE’s at any time, and for any reason, that is not illegal Age protected under ADEA Disability protected under ADA Ways to Prove Unjust Termination 1. Inconsistent treatment compared with peers 2. Deviation from prior practice or policy 3. Statements made that are discriminatory 4. Statistics show a reduction in type of workers Plaintiff must exhaust administrative remedy through EEOC within 300 days Can get emotional distress, punitive damages, ER must pay attorney fees Harassment based on race, sex/gender, religion, or national origin Any harassment based on these qualities violate T7 Sexual Harassment (two types) 1. Quid Pro Quo (“this for that”): Job benefits in exchange for sexual favors Supervisor offers benefits OR threatens adverse action if EE doesn’t comply with request for sexual favors Key points: Involve supervisor, if proven, ER is liable for supervisor’s conduct, evidence of other similar behavior by this same supervisor is acceptable Love-Contract: If small company, when supervisor and employee date, they come in and the company protects itself by making both parties enter into this contract. 2. Hostile Work Environment: Workplace is poisoned by gender- based inappropriate conduct that causes employee to be less productive This is the most common claim, conduct doesn’t need to be tangible job benefit, or just the supervisor, can be customer, co- worker, etc. Conduct that can give rise to HWE: sexual gestures, asking about sexual history, referring to women as baby etc, unwanted pressure for dates, physical conduct, sexual jokes, attempted rape. Burden of proof: Must prove they are a protected class, it was unwanted, it was sufficiently severe/pervasive to create a hostile work environment Courts: Look at frequency and severity of conduct, if conduct is physically or psychologically threatening, and if conduct unreasonably interferes with employee’s work performance.