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When a calcium salt is heated in a flame, a photon of

Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780547586632 | Authors: Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis ISBN: 9780547586632 214

Solution for problem 4.1.85 Chapter 4

Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition

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Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780547586632 | Authors: Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis

Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition

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Problem 4.1.85

When a calcium salt is heated in a flame, a photon of light with an energy of 3.2 10-19 J is emitted. On the basis of this fact and the table below, what color would be expected for the calcium flame? 1

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EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 15: Carbohydrates Terms to Know  Biomolecules­ exist in living organisms  Carbohydrates­ occurring OH groups with a ketone or aldehyde o Monosaccharides= simple sugar= 3­7 carbons o Disaccharides= 2 monosaccharides= 6­14 carbons o Polysaccharides= complex­ many monosaccharides combined  Chiral­ 4 different atoms attached to the same carbon  Achiral­ at least one atom bonded to the same carbon MORE THAN ONCE  Enantiomers­ mirror images  Fisher Projections­ 2 dimensional that has bonds that goes back and forward  Haworth structures­ formed by a reaction between a carbonyl and hydroxyl group  Anomers­ cyclic sugar that differs at the carbon atom where an OH and OR group is attached  Hyperglycemia­ blood glucose concentration higher than 90 mg ­ Excessive thirst and urination ­ Can be caused by diabetes  Hypoglycemia­ blood glucose concentration lower than 70mg ­ Dizziness, weakness, ­ Can be caused by overproduction of insulin by pancreas Naming Carbohydrates 1. Find highest functional group ­Ketone or Aldehyde 2. Count # of carbons 3. Add –ose ending Drawing Haworth structures 1. Draw Fisher Projection 2. Turn 90 degrees clockwise 3. Curve carbons into hexagon shape 4. Figure if the molecule is a D or L by looking at the OH group on the last chiral carbon - If it points to the right its D, if it points to the left its L 5. Rotate carbon 6 either up for D molecule or down for L molecule 6. Make hemiacetal by closing the loop Reactions    Oxidation of Monosaccharides - Just add an O to the H - Replace –ose ending with –onic acid    Oxidation of Fructose ­> Glucose - Benedicts solution - Ketose ­> Aldose    Reduction of Monosaccharides - Only aldehydes - Produce sugar alcohols - Aldehydes ­> 1 degree alcohol - Replace –ose ending with –itol D­Glucose - Most common - Source of energy for brain - Found in fruits, vegetables, honey, corn syrup D­Galactose - Component of lactose - Found in milk D­Fructose - Very sweet - Found in honey and fruits Forming Disaccharides  Glucose + Glucose = Maltose (Malt sugar) - From hydrolysis of starch - Reducing sugar - Found in cereals, candies, brewing  Glucose + Galactose = Lactose (Milk sugar) - Milk and milk products - Reducing sugar  Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose (Table sugar) - Not reducing sugar Polysaccharides: I. Starch - Insoluble - Found in plants, rice, wheat, potatoes, and beans Amylose vs. Amylopectin - Better for us - 80% of starch - Harder to digest - unbranched alpha 1-4 bond and branched alpha 1-6 bond - 20% or starch - Unbranched alpha 1-4 bond II. Glycogen - Stored in liver and muscles - Unbranched alpha 1-4 bond and branched alpha 1-6 bond - Maintain blood glucose level - Provide energy between meals III. Cellulose - Unbranched beta 1-4 bond - Insoluble - Used for plant structure Chapter 17: Lipids Lipids= from plant or animal - soluble in nonpolar solvents - insoluble in water A. Fatty Acids - Carboxylic acids - Fats and oils - 12-18 carbons - Saturated= single bonds, o bad for us, solid at room temp., clog arteries - Unsaturated= double bonds o Cis= large kinks/bends, fewer interactions, low melting point, liquid at room temp. o Trans= straight line, more interactions, higher melting point, solid at room temp. o I. Wax= ester of a saturated fatty acid and alcohol - Found in fruits, leaves, stems = prevent loss of water - Found in skin, fur, and animal feathers = provide waterproof coating II. Triacylglycerol - Fats or oils - Glycerol and 3 fatty acids - Energy storage III. Glycerophospholipids - 2 fatty acids + PO4 + amino alcohol - Lecithin and Cephalin o Brain and nerve tissues o Found in egg yolk, wheat germ, yeast - Polar head and nonpolar tail IV. Sphingomyelin - Sphingosine + 1 fatty acid + PO4 + choline - Made of myelin sheath - Surround nerve cells - Increase nerve impulses - Insulates/ protects nerve cells B. Steroids - All consist of steroid nucleus ( 3 cyclohexane and 1 cyclopentane ring ) I. Cholesterol - OH on carbon3, double bond between carbon 5 & 6, methyl group on carbon 10 & 13, and alkyl chain off carbon 17 - Polar and nonpolar - Made in liver - Found in meats, milk, eggs - Maintain cell, membrane structure - Too much can clog arteries or gallstones II. Bile Salts - Polar and nonpolar - Made in liver - Stored in gallbladder - Helps absorb cholesterol  Lipoproteins - Chylomicrons o Transport lipids from diet - VLDS’s o Carry triacylglycerol from liver to peripheral tissues o Storage and energy - LDL’s = bad cholesterol o Transport cholesterol from liver to peripheral tissues o Used in cell membranes and to make steroids o Can cause arterial plagues - HDL’s = good cholesterol o Transport cholesterol back to liver o Convert cholesterol to bile salts III. Steroid hormones - From cholesterol - Communication system C. Eicosanoids - 20 carbons - Unsaturated - Made throughout body - “short-lived chemical messengers” I. Prostaglandins - Lowering/raising blood pressure - Stimulate contraction/relaxation - Produce inflammation, pain, swelling Chapter 19: Amino Acids and Proteins Terms to Know  Amino acids- an alpha carbon bonded to a NH3+, COO-, H, and a R group - Essential Amino Acids o Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, and Valine  Zwitterions- overall net charge of zero - Can form crystals= high melting point - Soluble in water  Isoelectric= PI= PH when negative and positive charges balance evenly  Cationic- positive net charge, low PH= more H+  Anionic- negative net charge, high PH= more OH-  Peptide bond- forms between COO- group and a NH3+ group - Naming Peptides o Combine first 3 letters of amino acids used and separate with hyphens Protein Structures 1. Primary= actual amino acid sequence - Cannot denature= stay the same 2. Secondary= coiling and folding of backbone interaction - Two repeating patterns (alpha –helix=hydrogen bonds between amino acids or Beta –sheet=hydrogen bonds side to side) Ex. Collagen 3. Tertiary= overall 3D shape of R groups -Hydrophilic interaction= noncovalent, must interact with H2O -Hydrophobic interactions= noncovalent, between nonpolar particles -Salt Bridges= noncovalent, between charged particles -Hydrogen bonding- noncovalent, between polar w/ polar, acidic, or basic particles -Disulfide bonding= covalent, must have (-s-s-) interactions Ex. Myoglobin 4. Quaternary= 2+ polypeptides come together Ex. Hemoglobin Protein Hydrolysis= peptide bonds --> amino acids - Break down w/presence of digestive enzyme Protein Denature= disruption of noncovalent interactions - Secondary, tertiary, and quaternary - Due to temp. increase, change in pH, heavy metals

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Chapter 4, Problem 4.1.85 is Solved
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Textbook: Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012
Edition: 1
Author: Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis
ISBN: 9780547586632

Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780547586632. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 4.1.85 from chapter: 4 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 01/04/18, 09:13PM. The answer to “When a calcium salt is heated in a flame, a photon of light with an energy of 3.2 10-19 J is emitted. On the basis of this fact and the table below, what color would be expected for the calcium flame? 1” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 42 words. Since the solution to 4.1.85 from 4 chapter was answered, more than 495 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 98 chapters, and 1789 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012, edition: 1.

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