relati ng ideas A compound containing sodium, chlorine, and oxygen is 25.42% sodium by mass. A 3.25 g sample gives 4.33 1022 atoms of oxygen. What is the empirical formula?
Ch. 13 Arts, Media and Spirits Arts: include music, theater arts, visual arts, story-telling and literature Expressive culture: manifestations of human creativity Many cultures lack terms that can be translated easily as “arts” or “the arts” Art: an object, event, or other expressive form that evokes an aesthetic reaction Aesthetics: an appreciation of the qualities perceived in art George Mills: in many cultures, role of art lover lacks definition, because art is not viewed as separate activity Jacques Maquet: artwork is something that stimulates and sustains contemplation - Much art is done in association with religion - Art may be created/ performed, displayed – outside/ inside special setting - Produced for its aesthetic value as well as religious purposes Locating Art- - Tribal societies typically lack museums, but some maintain special areas where artistic expression takes place - State societies rely on critics, judges, and experts to define what’s art and not - Need to avoid applying our own standards about what is art to other cultures - Kalabari- Nigeria Art and Individuality - - Some anthropologists argue study of non-western art ignores individual and focuses on the group - More collective effort - Paul Bohannan: pay less attention to artists and more attention to art critics and products - Arto Haapala: artists and works are inseparable - A thing of beauty may be a joy forever even if we can’t credit its creator Work of Art- - For the artist, art is work - In non-state societies,, artists cannot work on art all the time - In states, artiest are full-time specialists - Some familiar genres- panting, music - Standards to judge if the artwork is complete or fully realized Art, Society, and Culture- - Around 100,000 years ago some of the world’s first artists occupied Blombos Cave - Christopher Hinshelwood: sharp instruments show symbolic thinking - Europe- art goes back more than 30,000 years- Upper Paleolithic - Art- usually more public than cave paintings Cave Painting Lascaux - Near Montignac, France a collection of prehistoric cave paintings are discovered by 4 teenagers- followed dog - 15,000-17,000 year-old paintings - Animal representations- Upper Paleolithic period - Sept. 12 1940 Ethnomusicology- - Comparative study of music of the world as an aspect of culture and society - Music: a cultural universal, and musical abilities seem to run in families - Music arose early - All cultures have lullabies - Music is inherently cultural and social - Folk art, music, and lore refer to expressive culture and ordinary people - Basongye of Democratic Republic of the Congo: 3 features- Music and sound o Music waves involve humans o Musical sounds must be organized o Music must continue - Folk: of the people: arts, music, and love of ordinary people - Planinica, Servia Representations of Art and Culture- - Art can stand for tradition, even when traditional art is removed from its original context Grim Shaw: many ethnographic films start off with music- drumbeats Assumption- that arts of nonindustrial societies usually have a link with religion Art and Communication- - Functions in society as form of communication between artist and community or audience - Tension and resolution of drama can lead to Catharsis- intense emotional release - meant to commemorate and to carry on enduring message Art and Politics- - can express or challenge community sentiment and standards - Much art valued today- received with revulsion in its own time - U.S. no museum director can mount exhibit without considering politically organized segments of society Cultural Transmission of the Arts- - Part of culture appreciation for arts depends on cultural background - Appreciation for art is learned - Navajo music: individualism: conservatism proper form - Many societies o Myths, legends, tales and art of storytelling play important roles in transmission of culture and preservation of tradition The Artistic Career- - Nonindustrial societies, artists tend to be part-time specialists - Many non-Western societies offer career tracks into the arts - Children born into certain lineages are destined to particular artistic careers - Artists need support - Arts- nether practical nor ordinary Continuity and Change- - The art go on changing although certain art forms have survived for thousands of years o Balinese: dance o Navajo: sand paintings, jewelry, weaving o French: cuisine o Greeks: drama Media and Culture- - Mass culture features cultural forms that appear and spread rapidly because of major changes in material conditions - Provides framework of common expectations, experiences, and behavior that overrides differences Using the Media- - Text: anything that can be processed, interpreted, and assigned meaning by anyone exposed to it - John Fiske: individuals use of popular culture is a creative act Media Consumers actively select, evaluate, and interpret media in ways that make sense to them - Media offer rich wed and external connections - Media provide social cement Kottak: family -planning is one area TV has influenced behavior - Current viewing level, and number of years of TV presence in the home predictors of (smaller) family size - Limited number of players in each telenovela Sports and Culture- - Football - Popularity directly depends on mass media - W. Arens: popular because it symbolizes certain key aspects of life- hard work/ teamwork - Montague and Morals: presents miniaturized and simplified version of modern organizations International Sport Success- - Cultural values, social forces and media - Media can heighten interest - Brazilian media strikingly intolerant of users - U.S. - Hard work and personal improvement as important as winning - U.S. - Americans identity emerges as a result of what he or she does