Consider the equation for acetic acid plus water. CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO + H3O+ a. Refer to Figure 3.1 to compare the strengths of the two acids in the equation. Do the same for the two bases. b. Determine which directionforward or reverseis favored in the reaction.
Chapter 16 Treatment and Therapy Current forms of therapy: Psychotherapy ● Therapy using psychological techniques Biomedical therapy ● Use of medicine, surgery, treatment Combining therapies an eclectic approach Psychoanalysis ● Freud ● Refers to a set of techniques for releasing the tension of repression and resolving unconscious inner conflicts ● Techniques: ○ Free association ○ Interpretation Psychodynamic therapy ● Discover themes across important relationships ● Focus is improved self awareness and insight into unconscious thoughts and feelings which may be rooted in past relationships ● “Talk” therapy Interpersonal therapy ● A further extension of psychotherapy ● Less focused on insight and past experiences ● Improve relationship skills ● “Talk” therapy Humanistic Therapy ● Emphasizes the human potential for growth ● Attempts to boost selffulfillment by helping people gain self awareness and self acceptance ● Client centered therapy ● The therapist should exhibit empathy and unconditional positive regard and should listen without judging Behavior therapy ● Sometimes insight and self awareness do not reduce symptoms ● Behavior therapy uses the principles of learning, especially classical and operant conditioning ● Maladaptive symptoms ○ Learned behaviors that can be replaced by adaptive behaviors Classical conditioning techniques ● Counterconditioning ○ Refers to linking new, positive responses to previously aversive stimuli Exposure therapy (type of counterconditioning) ● Avoidance of the feared situation worsens a conditioned fear ○ Avoidance is reinforced because it quickly reduces anxiety ○ Guided exposure to the feared situation eliminates avoidance ● Systematic desensitization ○ Construct a hierarchy of anxietytriggering situations ○ Gradually increase the exposure intensity while using relaxation techniques ● Virtual reality therapy ○ Fear of flying: fly simulator ● Aversive conditioning ○ When a person has been conditioned to have a positive association with a drug ○ Aversive conditioning can associate the drug with a negative response ○ Ie if you want someone to stop drinking alcohol, put nausea inducing drugs in their drink ● Operant conditioning therapy ○ Behaviors are influenced by their consequences ○ Reward desired behaviors ○ Withhold reinforcement for undesired behaviors ○ Select appropriate reward ○ Token economy : sticker chart, cards that can be exchanged for candy