A cannon shell is fi red straight up in the air at an initial speed of 225 m/s. After how much time is the shell at a height of 6.20 102 m and heading down? (a) 2.96 s (b) 17.3 s (c) 25.4 s (d) 33.6 s (e) 43.0 s
Pre-Modern World History Weekly Notes March 14-18 Week 10 Monday: Later Han Daoism changed and Laozi was treated as a god. Buddhism adopted the belief of the salvation of the Millenarian. The Han Dynasty falls: o 3 sates replace Han North West: Wei South West: Shu South: Wu o There was disunity among the nation There was no reunification until the Tang Dynasty, which existed 618-907 AD. It was dis-unified for almost 500 years. Roman Chronology The Regal Age: 779-509 BC. The Republic: 509-27 BC. The Empire: 27 BC-1453 AD. The Founding of Rome Romulus and Remus, sons of Princess Rhea Sylvia. Their father was the god of war, Mars. Allegedly, she was raped by him. The twin boys are left in the wilderness and a female wolf finds them and nurses them and they grow up to found Rome upon Romulus’ murder of Remus. Ancient Italy In 800 BC there were distinct groups of people who occupied the Italian peninsula: The Umbrians, the Sabines, the Samnites, the Estruscans, and the Latins. The Estruscans built sewer systems, drained marshes, and constructed roads, temples, and public buildings. Roman Conquests of Italy There was conflict between kings and aristocrats because of the system of inequality. There was war of self-defense; they wanted to protect their autonomy. After defeating the Italians, they allowed them to return to their land under the condition of submission to the Roman government. It created cultural unity. Keltic Gauls tried to invade Italy in 390 BC. Social Turmoil (500-280 BC) There was turmoil between Patricians and Plebian because of the inequality. Patricians had special privileges. o Government control. o Source of turmoil. Plebian strategy of physical withdrawal: they basically went on strike. The results included the first written code of law which granted Plebians some equality. It was called the Twelve Tables (451 BC). This shows unity through compromise. The Roman Republic and Its Constitution They had no written constitution, but there was an understanding of their beliefs and laws. They made laws to meet the needs of the growing state: it was like cause and effect. They made laws if something happened so they could meet those needs. It was one of the first system of checks and balances: o The Office of Consul: Two elected to a term of one year each. o The Roman Senate: 300 men from “leading” families (Patricians); controlled finances and foreign. Assemblies: Included all adult male citizens (free men). Voted on passages of all laws, but usually followed the advice of the Senate. o The Office of Censor: in charge of public morality. o Census-Basic information on the population. Social Systems Custom: things the people would do that would sometimes become law. Network of reciprocal relationships-The relationship of, “if I do this for you, you must do this for me later.” It is potentially corrupt because not the best people always got business. It was a patron-client relationship. The client had duties and the patron had obligations. Relationships were maintained even after the fall of the empire. Romans valued loyalty. The Roman Family and Women Patriarchal society. The father was at the center. Patria Potestas means the power of the father. The father had the power of life and death over the members of his family. Fathers made up the town council. Women were living under men. The women had powers and duties of faithfulness and motherhood. The lot for poor women is that they had little to no say in their lives. However, women could obtain indirect political impact through men, like their husbands. Gods The Romans had 3 main gods: Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. A lot of their religion was copied from the Greeks, they just put their own spin on it. Gods gave protection and provision. Deification of abstract moral quality. Fides (loyalty), Pietas (Devotion), and Virtus (Virtue). Vesta and Vestal Virgins: If raped, women were expected to commit suicide to maintain the honor of her family. The father had the right to kill his daughter to maintain the honor of his family. Household Shrines: Penates and Lares . The Romans believed in a multitude of spirits. Overseas Conquests The Romans fought the Carthaginians: the 1 Punic War (264-241 BC). They seized Sardinia and Corsica. nd 2 Punic War (218-201 BC). Wars were extremely costly, devastating. Hannibal’s invasion and the battle of Cannae Wars The Romans waged war against the Gauls, who they considered to be barbarians like the Carthaginians. The “raven” system of boats: navy. 2nd Macedonian War, (200-197 BC). o They claimed to fight to free the Greeks. o But, Greeks became colonies of Rome. rd 3 Punic War (149-146 BC). Roman Imperialism: o Autonomy: control over trade. o Power. Wednesday: Consequences of Roman Expansion Mediterranean Sea: Mare Nostrum, main traders, “our sea.” Increased equality between the rich and the poor. Disruption of regular patterns of life in the countryside: resources and forced labor. Small farms fell into debt and sold land to the rich owners of Latifundia. Urban Poverty. Brought in slaves from controlled regions and Europe. Romans and Imitations of Greek Culture Romanized Greek culture, Hellenized. Romans viewed themselves as superior to Greeks and carriers of Greek culture. Rome imitates Greek literature and bathing custom. Shift in eating: they adopted eating habits from regions they conquered. More opportunities for wealth. Once enemies were destroyed, there was a loss of patriotism; it was like once they were done with war, there was no more purpose. Spread of architecture through the empire. “All roads lead to Rome.” Rome was the main political center. The Decline of the Republic Tiberius Gracchus tried land reformation; violation of the “way of the elders.” Gaius Gracchus and the cause of the Reform. Tension between senators and equities; saw to be taking away from the wealthy. Death of Gaius. The Concept of the “New Man” Gaius Marius: Strong man, center of power, “triumph”—high military power, opened army to property-less people which caused social mobility. Social War: Sulla, march on Rome. Roman legions were banned to do those things. All freeborn Italians were made citizens: expansion of the right to vote, Plebians and property—could vote, all voting had to take place in Rome, so not many people who did not live in Rome voted. Caesar and the Conquest of Gaul: Caesar attacked Gaul; Gallic campaigns, wrote records; death of over 1 million Gauls; Gaul was dis-unified. Political violence in Rome was a result of political debates. Pompey made sole consul which was against tradition. Julius Caesar marches on Rome: He declares himself Emperor; People didn’t like him because he was destroying the republic; even when he was assassinated, the republic was not restored. Legacy of the Republic Spread Greco-Roman culture. Applied Roman law equality throughout the Empire: Roman civil law—citizens; law of the people—special law for the people to govern themselves through the continuation of indigenous law. Roman law must be decided with logic and reason. Early Empire Unification—political and cultural. Citizenship of some non-Italians. Empire wide commerce. Roman law. Tolerance local autonomy. Pax Romana—time of peace. Emperors portrayed themselves as civil rulers; as if they were for the people. There were no checks on their power so power abuse occurred. The military carried out governmental duties. Pax Romana Decentralized society. Transformation of city-life: fire departments, improved sewage systems, police, and improved water systems. Elites worried that traditional Roman values were being broken down. The government attempted to control the people’s private lives by forcing laws on morality: laws curbed adultery, premarital sex, and rewarded large families. Economy and Religious Cults Because of size, the economy changed. Persecution of Christians started because the Roman government saw them as a threat to their power. At first the government did not make the distinction between Christianity and Judaism. Spread of Christianity from Jerusalem to Rome Persecution of Christians under Nero. The distinction was made between Jews and Christians. Fire: justification for the persecution of Christians. Early Christians and the Roman Empire Systematic persecution after the fire. Romans and Christians Romans made Christianity illegal. Christians were uncompromising and refused to hide their faith. Roman elites did not normally convert. Lower class converted often. Romans couldn’t control Christians. They made up punishments as an excuse to persecute Christians. Friday: Martyrs Ignatius Bishop of Antioch: killed by lions in a Roman colosseum. Justin Martyr. Persecution in Carthage 200 AD Perpetua: A noble woman whose family had Roman citizenship. She had a son and a husband and kept a diary while in prison. She was persecuted with her slave, Felicitas. Saturninus, Revocatus, Secundulus. Saturus. Perpetua looked at the audience in the eyes as she entered the arena to be killed by a while animal as a way of defying the Roman authorities, which made the authorities say that Christians were deviant and defiant. The Cow When the woman Christians were persecuted, instead of being killed by a bull, they were killed by a cow. It was insisted upon that they were not real women. They did this as a sign of mockery and humiliation. Tetrarchy and the Roman Empire Increasing intolerance of Christians only increased the number of Christians. Great Persecutions They rivaled against each other in relation to who could create a greater persecution for the Christians. Edict of Toleration.