To recharge a 12-V battery, a battery charger must move 3.6 _ 105 C of charge from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. How much work is done by the charger? Express your answer in joules.
MKT 350 March 1, 2016 Lecture notes At the beginning of the class, Professor Mader talked about the article written 15 years ago. It was about traffic management and authors claimed that traffic management would be different in the future. Today traffic management is more important than before. However, things are done the same way as they were done 15 years ago. Traffic management is a set of activities that shipper engages in to make their products moved in a system. The output of the firm should be delivered to the final destination, in a most efficient way. Now shippers have sophisticated math algorithms and they collect data of carriers; Transportation leasing is rapidly growing section of the market today (you can lease everything). Largest existing container ship was built by Hyundai. Its capacity is 19,000 Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit (TEU). TEU (Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit) is the measure of container ship’s capacity. KEY ISSUES OFTRAFFIC MANAGEMENT • Shipment Planning (now there is management of traffic operations and there is planning of traffic operation). • Mode/Carrier Selection Time (Just in time inventory; being fast is not an issue, consistency is an issue). Consistency (It is not only about speed; it is about getting the move accomplished; also this point is related to dependability.) Rates (Fair, competitive rate). Billing practices (There is a new system of billing: shippers don’t bill their carriers. When a load leaves AND it reaches the destination, shippers immediately deposit what they think is owed to carrier account.). Equipment availability (Railroads may not have the stuff when it is needed: railroad cars, for example, may not be present. You need right equipment and at the right time.). Loss and damage record (Attitude towards Loss and Damages; the best scenario is when there are no damages. It is better than being paid for broken/destroyed loads (For example, rail mode pays for all losses). This thing should be taken seriously.) Financial rating (Shippers are looking for carriers, who do not have financial difficulties. Shippers want carriers to stay with them for a long time.). Single-line service (The customer understands that a single carrier will be responsible for transportation.As of today, it is not as important, as 10-15 years ago). In-transit privileges (Also called “transit privilege”: Acarrier service that permits the shipper to stop the shipment in transit to change the commodity’s physical characteristics) Expediting (speeding up process). Tracing (where load is in the system). Auditing (It is old as traffic management; auditors will look whether right amount was priced; whether company was paid enough, charged enough, etc.). Detention/Demurrage: those two words mean exactly the same. Detention is for truck; demurrage is for rail; Those terms describe charges that are levied against shippers for holding carrier’s equipment for too long). Claims (Loss & Damages). This is important. Rate and Service Negotiation Reparations (Penalties emerge, when a carrier’s system breaks down and it causes damage to a shipper/consignee). Consolidation (Make-bulk and Break-bulk). Make-bulk is when small quantities of several products into bigger assortments. Break- bulk is when cargo transported as separate pieces, not in containers. Documentation Bill of lading (There are 4 types: straight, order, short, preprinted). This is the primary document. It shows who owns the goods. Straight bill of lading is uniformed bill of lading (it is a standardized bill of lading, which means that all documents are the same). Order bill of lading is when consignee is not listed; you can change the owner during the transportation. Preprinted bill of lading is when one preprints the same bill, if consignee and consignor are the same. Privatization (It is important to answer the questions: “Will we use our own transportation or use someone else’s transportation”).