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In Figure P19.23 the cube is 40.0 cm on each edge. Four

College Physics, | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780495386933 | Authors: Raymond A. Serway Chris Vuille, Jerry S. Faughn ISBN: 9780495386933 215

Solution for problem 19.56 Chapter 19

College Physics, | 8th Edition

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College Physics, | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780495386933 | Authors: Raymond A. Serway Chris Vuille, Jerry S. Faughn

College Physics, | 8th Edition

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Problem 19.56

In Figure P19.23 the cube is 40.0 cm on each edge. Four straight segments of wireab, bc, cd, and daform a closed loop that carries a current I _ 5.00 A in the direction shown. A uniform magnetic fi eld of magnitude B _ 0.020 0 T is in the positive y-direction. Determine the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on each segment.

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PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 6 CNS Stimulants Overview • S▯mulants-Substancesthatkeepaperson"going"mentally&physically • Cocaine&amphetaminerestricteds▯mulants: ◦ Originatefromplants ◦ Moresimilarthandifferent ◦ Alikeinsubjec▯veeffects,toxici▯es,pa▯ernsofabuse,tolerance,&dependence • Produceheightenedawareness • Decreasesleep&appe▯te • Increasemotorac▯vity • Highintake=psychosis ◦ Importantdifferenceinoralavailability&dura▯onofac▯on • Amphetaminesorallyswallowed&lastlonger History Cocaine • Coca:bushprimarilygrowingintheAndes ◦ Harvestedforthousandsofyears ◦ Ac▯velycul▯vatedforover800years • Na▯veworkerschewleavesforaboostthesamewaywedrinkcoffeefors▯mula▯on ◦ ImportantpartoftheIncaculture se i no me r ec suo i g i l e r n i de ◦sU ◦ Usedascurrency • Colonizing/se▯lingSpaniards: ◦ Disgustedbychewingprac▯ce ◦ Triedtotakeitaway ◦ Realizeditwasthebackboneoftheeconomy&labor ◦ Letworkerskeepchewingittomaintainproduc▯on&miningofgold,etc. • 1800sscien▯stsstartedtostudyplant&medicinaleffects ◦ Putextractsintoproductslikepatentmedicines,teas,cocacola,lozenges,wine,etc. ◦ CocaWine • AngeloMariani • Frenchchemist,developedwinew/cocaleafextract • Indirectlyintroducedcocaleaftothegeneralpublic ◦ Con▯nuestoserveasanimportantmedica▯on • Schedule2substanceb/cithasmedicinaluse • 1860Anesthe▯cusediscoveredbyden▯stDr.W.S.Halsted ▪ Notusedmedicallyun▯l1884 ▪ Usedaslocalanesthesia(injectedintogums) ▪ 1905Novocain-Synthe▯cdrugmodeleda▯ercocainew/similar proper▯es • Cheapertomanufacture,doesn'tcomefromplant,easierto control,doesn'tproduce"high" ▪ Synthesizeddrugshavelargelyreplacedcocaineformedicaluse 1 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Verypopulardruginlate1800s • SherlockHolmesstorieshighlightedposi▯ve&nega▯vepsychologicaleffects • EarlypsychiatricusebyFreud ◦ Usedcocaineastreatmentfordepression&morphinedependence ◦ Wroteextensivelyaboutstudiesonuse ◦ Laterincareeropposedusea▯ernursingafriendthrucocainepsychosis • 1980susedfrequentlybyathletes • Legalcontrolsoncocaine: ◦ 1887-191446statespassedlawsregula▯nguse/distribu▯on ◦ Useincreasedatendof1960s ◦ 1914HarrisonAct • Taxedimporta▯on/saleofcoca&opium ◦ Rela▯velyexpensive,useassociatedw/status,wealth,&fame ◦ Supplywasinsuchsurplusmanufacturersdidn'tknowwhattodow/it • 1986An▯-DrugAbuseAct ◦ Powdercocaineismoreexpensive&consumedtypicallybywhiteupperclass ◦ Crackcocaineissoldatcheaperprices&reacheslowerincomepopula▯onsincluding oppressedAfricanAmericanneighborhoods ◦ Lawtargetedcrackcocainedealers&manufacturers(lowerclass,lesswealthy) ◦ 100:1quan▯tyra▯obtwnamountsofpowder&crackcocaineneededtotrigger mandatoryminimumtraffickingsentences • Basicallypunishescrackdealers/usersbutnotcokeusers/dealers ◦ Lawrevised2yrslatertoapplytopossessionofjust5gramsofcrack ◦ Basicallypunishesprimarilylowerincomepopula▯ons&doesn'treallyaddressuseof cokebywealthypopula▯on ◦ Ra▯oreducedto18:1in2010 Amphetamines • Chineseusedmedicinalteamadefromephedra/MaHuangherb ◦ Ac▯veingredient=ephedrine(sympathomime▯cdrugusedintrea▯ngasthma) • Ephedrineisasympathomime▯cdrug ◦ S▯mulatessympathe▯cbranchofautonomicnervoussystem • Amphetamine ◦ Newsynthesizedchemicalsimilartoephedrine 2391 n i de t ne t◦aP • Amphetamineusedmedically: ◦ Asthma-dilatorofnasal&bronchialpassages ◦ Narcolepsy-disorderwherebrainisover-excited&preparesitselftofallasleep/shut down ◦ Hyperac▯vityinchildren ◦ Appe▯tesuppressant ◦ S▯mulant • History: ◦ UsebysoldiersinWW2tofightfa▯gue • Addic▯onremainedwhentheycamehome ◦ 1920s&30s:Amphetamines(cocaine)+heroininjectedtogether=speedball s06 ◦1 2 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Moststreetamphetaminescamefromprescrip▯ons • "Speedscene"=a▯me&placeinwhichpplused&becamedependenton intravenousamphetamine • Liquidmethamphetaminesformerlyusedass▯mulanttreatmentforge▯ng pa▯entswhoOdedonsleepingpillstobreatheagain ◦ Amphetaminesbecamemore▯ghtlycontrolled • 1970srestric▯onspassedtolimitmanufacture • Manylook-alikesappeared • Someusersswitchedbacktococaine • Illicitmanufactureofmethamphetaminegrew Marke▯ng Crack • Inexpensiveformofsmokablecocainebecameavailable 01$ - ◦5 $ ◦ Getsyouhighmuchfaster ◦ Muchhigherpoten▯alforabuse • Legalcontrols ◦ Media&poli▯ciansfocusedoncrackuseamongurbanblackppl • Associatedw/violence&dependency • Coke&Marijuana: ◦ Reaganpresidency&Bushvicepresidency • Focusedonlimi▯ng/controlinfluxofmarijuanabysmugglers • Smugglersshi▯edtoimpor▯ngcocaine ▪ Governmentindirectlycontributedtogrowthofcocaineimporta▯on& cheaperformslikecrack ◦ An▯-drugabuseactsof1986&1988 • Penal▯esforsaleofcrackcocainesignificantlymoreseverethanpenal▯esfor pwdercocaine • Tougherpenal▯esforfirst▯meusersofcrack • Dispropor▯onatelyaffectsblackcommunity Amphetamines • Limitedamphetamineavailabilityincreased#ofillicitlaboratoriesmakingmethamphetamine • Manufactureofmethisdangerous&associatedw/toxicfumes&residue ◦ Iceorcrystalmeth ◦ Smokable • AbusebeganinwesternUS&nowspreadeast • Nowconsideredaclubdrug • Abusemainlyremainsconcentratedinmid-westUS • Beneficialuses: ◦ Weightcontrol • Widelyusedtoreducefoodintake&bodyweight • Effectreal,butsmall • Combina▯onoffenfluramine&phentermineassociatedw/heartvalvedamage &lungdiseaseinsomeindividuals ◦ Narcolepsy • S▯mulantskeeppa▯entsawakeduringday • Newerdrugmodafinil(Provigil)promoteswakefulness 3 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Increasesac▯vityofnorepinephrine&dopamine • Lowabusepoten▯al • Doesn'tinducetolerance ◦ ADHD • S▯mulantmedica▯onscanreversecatecholamine-associateddeficitsunderlying ADHD • Sideeffects&concernsleadtouseofothertreatmentsforADHDbeingstudied • Longitudinalstudiessuggestmajorityofchildren/adolescentsw/ADHDdisplay symptomsintoadulthood • Manifesta▯onofsymptomschangeover▯me ◦ Treatmentop▯onsinADHD: • Psychoeduca▯onforpa▯ent&familymembers ▪ Supportgroups ▪ Coaching • Behavioral ▪ Psychotherapy ▪ Cogni▯vebehavioraltherapy • Pharmacologic ▪ Pharmacotherapeu▯cinterven▯ons ▪ S▯mulants ▪ Non-s▯mulants ▪ Treatmenttypicallyrequiresmul▯modalapproachtailoredtomeetneeds oftheindividual ◦ Some▯mesusedasadjunc▯vetherapyfordepression ◦ An▯depressanteffectsworkwithindays Names&Forms/Manufacture FormsofCocaine • Leaves ◦ Slowabsorp▯on ◦ Slowonsetofeffects ◦ 45-60minun▯lfeelingeffects • CocaPaste ◦ Crudeextractcreatedduringmanufactureofcocaine ◦ Cocaleavesmixedw/organicsolvent(keroseneorgasoline) ◦ Soaked/mixed/mashed&thenexcessliquidfilteredouttoformcocapaste deko ms y l no m◦oC • Rapid&briefeffects(peak1.5min) • CocaineHydrochloride ◦ Mostcommonform ◦ Stablewater-solublesalt ◦ Typicallyintra-nasaluse • Snor▯ng • Rapidabsorp▯on • Upto15minun▯lonsetofeffects ◦ Canbeinjected • Rapid&briefeffects(peak3min) 4 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Canbeusedtopically(rubbingongums,numbingeffect) • Freebase/CrackRock ◦ Lumpsofdriedsmokablecocaine ◦ Producedbymixingcocainew/bakingsoda&water Amphetamines • Methylphenidate(Ritalin) ◦ Oneoftheoldestofthes▯mulantmedica▯onsusedinthetreatmentofa▯en▯on& concentra▯onproblems ◦ Generallywelltolerated&workswelltoincreaseconcentra▯on&a▯en▯onwhile decreasinghyperac▯vity ◦ Worksabout80%ofthe▯metoreduceupto80%ofthesymptomsapersonis experiencing ◦ Sideeffects: • Decreasedappe▯te,decrease/disturbanceofsleep,some▯mesheadaches& gastrointes▯nalpains • At▯mesmotororvocal▯csemerge • Problemsw/moodinstability&irritability • Overdose:psycho▯csymptomsordelirium ◦ Problemscanalsoarisefromshorthalf-life • CrystalMeth ◦ Madefromhouseholdproducts ◦ OTCmedica▯onpseudoephedrinemixedw/iodine,phosphorus,organicsolvents,drano, paintthinner,an▯freeze,etc. • Mixedamphetaminesalts ◦ Availableformanyyearsintreatmentofa▯en▯on&concentra▯onformanyyears ◦ CurrentlyavailableofAdderall&AdderallXR MechanismofAc▯on Cocaine • Bindsdifferen▯allytodopamine,serotonin,&norepinephrineproteins • BindstoDAT1transporter,inhibi▯ngreuptakew/moreefficacythanmethamphetamines ◦ Directlypreventsre-uptakeofdopamine,serotonin,&norepinephrineintopre-synap▯c neurons • Inhibi▯onofre-uptakesubsequentlyelevatessynap▯cconcentra▯onsofeachofthese neurotransmi▯ers ◦ Prolongseffectsoftheseneurotransmi▯ers ◦ Alsoproducesnumberofindirectac▯ons • Alterotherneuromodulatorysystems • Opiodergic,glutamatergic,GABAergicsystems • **Behavioraleffectsbaseduponinterac▯onofmul▯pleneurotransmi▯ers ◦ Somemaybeallergic&dieonfirst-▯meuse ◦ Inconsump▯onw/alcohol,combineinthelivertoformcocaethylene-more euphorigenic&higherCVtoxicity • Absorp▯on: ◦ Chewing/suckingleaves-slowabsorp▯onthrumucousmembranes ◦ Snor▯ngpowder-rapidabsorp▯onintothebrain ◦ Intravenousinjec▯on-rapid/briefonset,highconcentra▯oninthebrain 5 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Smokingcrack-equallyfastonsetofeffects • Ac▯on: ◦ Cocainemoleculesmetabolizedbyenzymesinblood&liver • Elimina▯on: ◦ Metabolizedbyenzymesintheblood&liver ◦ Half-lifeof~anhour • Considerablevariabilitydependingonmethodofadministra▯on Amphetamines • Chemicalstructuresimilartocatecholamineneurotransmi▯ers ◦ Lessthan15%ofusersbecomeaddicted • Structureallowsittomoreeasilycrossblood-brainbarrier ◦ Structurallysimilartomoleculesofdopamine&norepinephrine(catecholamine neurotransmi▯ers) ◦ Ephedrine&PPAlessabletocrossbarrier&producemoreperipheralthancentral nervoussystemeffects • Causesincreasedac▯vityofmonoamineneurotransmi▯ers(dopamine,norepinephrine, serotonin)bys▯mula▯ngtheirrelease • Amphetaminescauseanincreaseinsynap▯cdopaminelevelsthru2mechanisms: 1. Amphetaminesexpeldopaminefromtheneuronthrudopaminemembrane transporters • S▯mulaterelease • Causeareversalinthedirec▯onofthedopaminetransporter 2. @highdosesamphetaminespreventdopaminestorage • Enterdopaminestoragevesiclesthruvesiculartransporter&displacedopamine fromthevesicle • S▯mula▯onofdopaminepathwayscreateeuphoria&increasemotorac▯vity • Increaseddosesproducerepe▯▯vemovementsthatcouldleadtopsycho▯c reac▯ons • Absorp▯on: ◦ Consumedorally,intranasally,intravenously,&thrusmoking ◦ Peakeffects: • 1.5hoursa▯eroralinges▯on • 15-30minutesa▯erintranasaladministra▯on • 5-10minutesfollowinginjec▯on,intranasal,orsmoking • Half-life: ◦ 10-12hrsforamphetamine ◦ 4-5hrsformethamphetamine • Rapidtolerance(tachyphylaxis)canoccura▯erhighdoses Harms Cocaine • AcutecocainetoxicitycausesprofoundCNSs▯mula▯on ◦ Canleadtoconvulsions,respiratoryorcardiacarrest • Significantindividualvaria▯onintheuptake&metabolismofcocaine ◦ Difficulttoes▯matesizeofalethaldose • Rare,severe,unpredictablereac▯onscancausecardiacfailure se i g r e l◦lA • Risksofregularlysnor▯ng: 6 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Damagetonasalseptum • Suscep▯bilitytoinfec▯on • Mayerodeaholebtwnseptalpassages ◦ Paranoidpsychosis • O▯enresultsfromnotsleeping • Irritability,restlessness,paranoia ◦ Damagetoheartmuscle • Reproduc▯veeffects: ◦ Suppressesappe▯te,willeffectnutri▯onofmother&baby • Infantwillnotdevelopproperly ◦ Increasedriskofmiscarriage&tornplacenta • "CrackBaby"phenomenon ◦ Babiesbornw/severedevelopmentalabnormali▯es ◦ Moreduetoinsufficiencyofnutri▯onthandirectcontactw/cocaine ◦ Studies: • Longitudinalstudyfollowing"crackbabies"&re-assessingthemevery5years • Individuals/adults30yearslaterseemtohave"caughtup" • Nowfunc▯onmoreorlesstypically • Cocaine&alcohol ◦ Combina▯oninthebodyformscocaethylene ◦ Showntobemoretoxicthancocaineinmice ◦ Tholesspotentthancocaineinhumans CrystalMeth • Ini▯aleffectspleasurabletomanyusers ◦ Euphoria,confidence,wakefulness • Ini▯alhighbloodsbrainw/dopamine,feelsverypleasurable,usecon▯nuesdespiteseverityof nega▯veconsequences • Nega▯veeffectsinclude: s sens se l pee l s f o sdo i r ep dedne t◦xE ◦ Paranoia,anxiety,agita▯on ◦ Violentmoodswings ◦ IncreasedHR&BP • Acutetoxicity: ◦ Increasesinfeelingsofpower,suspicion,paranoia ◦ Poten▯alriskofviolentbehavior • Veryhighdosesmaydestroycatecholamineneurons • Contaminantsformedduringmanufactureofillicitmethamphetaminemayhavetoxiceffectson braincells • Understudy:RiskofdevelopingmovementdisorderslikeParkinson'sdisease • Highdoseuse: ◦ Higherriskamongthosewhoinject ◦ Compulsive&repe▯▯vestereotypedac▯ons • I.E.Spendinganightcoun▯ngcornflakes • Chronictoxicity: ◦ Developmentofparanoidpsychosis Dependence&Treatment 7 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Cocaine Chronictoxicity/Dependence • Animal&humanstudiesshowitisapowerfullyreinforcingdrug ◦ Animalswillreadilyself-administerthedrugbylever-pressing • A▯erbingeuse,manyexperiencewithdrawalsymptoms: ◦ Craving,irritability,anxiety,depressedmood,increasedappe▯te,fa▯gue 3mainwithdrawalstages: 1. Crash ◦ Ini▯alabs▯nencea▯erbingeconsis▯ngofdepression,agita▯on,suicidalthoughts, fa▯gue 2. Withdrawal ◦ Moodswings,craving,anhedonia,obsessionw/drug-seeking .xEn ◦ Normalpleasurereturns,cuestriggercraving&moodswings Treatment • Medica▯ons ◦ Beta-andrenergicblockingdrugsforirregularheartrate&bloodpressure gurd c▯ohc y sp - ▯ ◦A halperidolcontrolspsycho▯csymptoms ◦ An▯-depressantdrugdespraminehelpspromoteabs▯nence • BehavioralApproaches ◦ Con▯ngencyapproaches ◦ Relapsepreven▯on ◦ Groupsupport Amphetamines • Dependence ◦ O▯ennoobviouswithdrawalsymptoms ◦ Producepsychologicaldependence ◦ CapableofproducingdependenceasdefinedbyDSMcriteria ◦ Potentreinforcer CurrentUse&FutureTrends • Surveysindicate~1%ofadultscurrentlyusecocaine(2012data) ◦ Downfrompeakof12%inthe1980s • Usageratesofcocaine&amphetaminetendtocycleinopposi▯ontoeachother ◦ Whencocaineusedecreases,amphetamineusemayincrease • LenBias ◦ 22y/oldcollegebasketballplayer ◦ Dra▯edtotheNBA ◦ Diedfromtryingcokehisfirst▯me,probablyhadallergies ◦ Followed8dayslaterbycoke-relateddeathofClevelandBrownsplayerDonRogers Amphetamines • Nonmedicalusepopularoncollegecampuses • Prevalenceratesamongcollegestudentsrange5.3%to34% • Forpurposesotherthandescribed: ◦ Diversion,recrea▯onaluse,illicituse,misuse,abuse • Growingproblemoncollegecampuses • Mainmo▯va▯ngreasonsformisusingprescrip▯ons▯mulants: 8 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Improveacademicperformance ◦ Helpw/concentra▯on&focusing ◦ Improvetestperformance ◦ Recrea▯onalpurposes 9

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Chapter 19, Problem 19.56 is Solved
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Textbook: College Physics,
Edition: 8
Author: Raymond A. Serway Chris Vuille, Jerry S. Faughn
ISBN: 9780495386933

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In Figure P19.23 the cube is 40.0 cm on each edge. Four