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Solved: The eigenvalues in 1 through 5 are all

Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modeling | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321796981 | Authors: C. Henry Edwards, David E. Penney, David T. Calvis ISBN: 9780321796981 216

Solution for problem 1 Chapter 3.8

Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modeling | 5th Edition

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Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modeling | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321796981 | Authors: C. Henry Edwards, David E. Penney, David T. Calvis

Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modeling | 5th Edition

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Problem 1

The eigenvalues in 1 through 5 are all nonnegative. First determine whether D 0 is an eigenvalue; then find the positive eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions. y00 C y D 0; y0 .0/ D 0, y.1/ D 0

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Monday, April 11, 2016 Recap  Foucault Discipline & Punish: how the West changed its relations of disciplinary power o Technologies and techniques of power increased with scientific understanding o Soul/body binary underwent serious change public spectacle of discipline to private concealment of discipline  Christian theory of person in the West o Body is prison of soul o Criminal behavior seen as a moral sickness of the body that had to be cured o Prison/discipline must be centered on curing the soul, or mind, so the body will not act out in criminal ways Bourdieu — Language and Symbolic Power  Of course, he begins with a major critique: o Linguistic models are used in social sciences because language thought of as a symbolic code to read. o Nope! o Language needs to be thought of as a vehicle for action and power  Linguistic exchanges reveal the social/power differences but also constitute and reinforce them discourse.  The asymmetry is what causes the discourse. Economy of Symbolic Exchange — The “Market”  Bourdieu uses the term “economy” to refer to the circulation of discourse and linguistic symbols in a society  2 aspects to this symbolic power market o There are proper ways of speaking o These proper ways are mediated by social classes that have their own censorships and rules  Bourdieu believes knowing the grammar of a language is only half of it you must know the social fields  The market shapes not only symbolic value of words and meanings, but the discourse surrounding them. o Prescriptions on how to talk about symbols, values, moral codes, etc.  Style: o Exactly the same as “speech genre” o Refers to local distinctions of saying and doing The Market and Discourse  It is not just language that circulates within a society, but discourse.  There are multiple meanings for each sign in the market: polysemy. o E.g. family, love, etc. can have opposite meanings in the same market o Major reason polysemy develops: social distinctions, a.k.a. social classes. o “There are no innocent words” Hidden Correspondence (Bourdieu’s Absence)  Symbolic efficacy why does language fail  Bourdieu sees symbolic efficacy failing when there is a discontinuity between the social structure (class) and social field (profession, age group, peer group, etc.)  Exactly like absence! o Difference between Derrida and Bourdieu is communication (Derr.) vs. social class (Bour.)  Political and religious discourses similar in that they: o “produce statement formally impeccable but semantically empty.” o Cultures view “law” and “right forms of speech” as synonymous phenomena.  “The right utterance claims what ought to be right”  People begin to misrecognize that their verbal repertoires are both “low class” and criminal o “the most rigorously rationalized law is never anything more than an act of social magic which works”. Wednesday, April 13, 2016 The Linguistic Situation  Basic problems with knowledge: o What defines “language” o Hegemony of “official languages” o Many of those deemed “endangered” only found in remote places o Lack of written scripts past 500 years saw massive language death Numbers of Language Death  About 10 languages constitute half the world’s speaking population o These are “native” speakers only  94% of world’s languages spoken by less than 6% of human population  Approximations  different figures depending  Linguistic “hotspots”: o Refers to spaces of intense linguistic diversity o Example: Saudi Arabia (9 Semitic languages) vs. Papua New Guinea (approx. 860 languages, multiple language families. Why do Languages Die o Sometimes natural causes (volcanic eruptions, famine, disease) wipe out communities of speakers o Political and cultural reasons: dominant forms of discourse create a negative language ideology o Native American and US Bureau of Indian Affairs “schools” o Welsh school flogging “Welsh not” badges o “Ideology of contempt”: how speakers view a less-dominant language. What Happens to Language When it “Dies”  Most languages in the face of extinction tend towards grammatical simplification  Speakers have fewer opportunities to use syntax and morphology become simplified o E.g. Dyitbal (Australian) pre-colonial had 4-part noun classification  now just has 2  Creolization usually takes place as well, with large number of loan words. Categories/Stages of Language Extinction  Michael Krauss: o Safe: languages that have official recognition and/or more than 100,000 speakers o Endangered: Learned by children but not likely to be passed on in the next generation o Moribund: Children no longer learning language o Extinct: No longer spoken  Only 10% of world’s languages considered “safe”. Critiquing Language Death  Problematic assumptions about language death  Use of numbers creates a colonial agenda technology of domination (Foucault). o Conveniently “leaving out” certain languages in the count furthers marginalization  Enumeration: o How to define language and death o What is the metric of “partial” or “bilingual” and its relation to the statistics on rates of death  E.g. is a person who is considered by the researcher “partial” counted among native speakers Or left out Why  Research agendas: example o Ethnologue widely cited for its counting and recognition of different languages o But their primary purpose its to create Bibles in all said languages! o Ultimate index to their “ethnologue” is American English.  English dominates as the ultimate source of translation  Multiculturalism problems: o “Saving culture” but for whom Does their language “belong” to you Language Extinction: What Happens  Harrison and Crystal: o Human knowledge loss  Knowledge of natural world: species unknown to biologists known to native speakers.  Knowledge of sustainable resources management o Cultural heritage loss  Myths, stories, ways of being all unknown without knowing a language o Cognitive research opportunities lost  Some languages so unusual they break with standard/accepted “universals” (Chomsky) Using biology as justification  Analogy of species to language has drawn criticisms  Essentialize nature, language and native speakers o They are valorized, seen as “of the land” and represent a time where man and nature were closer o Exoticized a made simplistic stereotyped about their life patterns and worldviews.  Speaking a language and being a language –a culture- are not always the same, especially in multilingual communities. Language Ideologies  Languages ideologies have a prominent place in discourse surrounding language death  Homogeneity and revitalization efforts: o Assume standard practice when there are none o Natives resist outsider opinion on “true” nature of their language  “Endangered” vs. politics: o Rhetoric of English-Only movement proposes that American English is “endangered”  Over 300 million native speakers o Differences between “change” and “loss” Language Endangerment Case Studies: China & S.E. Asia  Looks at different endangered languages and their respective places  Major problems: o Classification by national governments o Dominant language ideologies vs. local customs o National boundaries recognize difference when there isn’t one. MK Languages — Aslian Example  Part of the larger Austroasiatic Family o Indigenous to mainland Southeast Asia o Only Vietnamese and Cambodian given national status o All others are endangered to some degree  Aslian Language Group: o Spoken by the Orang Asli ethnic group o Endangered because of Malay migration into their territories. o Continuously dominated by Malay speakers o 2007 church destroyed by the local government sued the state, unresolved.  Animist culture vs. dominant Islam and Christian religious cultures of Malaysia. Austra-Thai Languages — Kadai Example  The Kadai languages are the northern eastern groups in southern China, and northern Vietnam and Laos  These languages are highly endangered: o Communities live in heavily forested, mountainous areas. o Huge populations with very low speaking rates  Hundreds of thousands of people, fewer than a thousand can actually speak indigenous language.  Chinese, Vietnamese of Hmong being spoken instead.  Chinese linguistic authorities don’t recognize their language family. o Mandarin is part of an entirely separate language family! o Historical linguistics losing valuable data o History of state repression by northern Chinese authority Sino-Tibetean Languages — Loloish Example  Loloish forms related to Burma and found in southwest China. o Yunnan area in China holds these highly endangered languages o Spoken by the Yi people o About 50 languages in this group are moribund about to go extinct  Incredible cultural heritage within hegemonic Chinese state: o Produced their own script, based off northern Chinese o Bimo shaman-priests integral part of daily life, preserved in the literacies of these Loloish speakers. Altaic Languages — Manchu Example  The term “Mandarin” actually comes from these people! o Marco Polo’s expedition found China ruled by the ethnic Man peoples (not ethnic Chinese/Han people), hence term “Mandarin” for China o Qing Dynasty overthrown in 1011-1912 led to destruction of Manchu language o Quing Emperors slowly acculturated towards Han Chinese customs  Similar problem like Kadai speakers millions of ethnic Manchu but only a handful (not all over 60) can actually speak the language. o This process is known as “Sinicization” Ainu — Language Isolate of Japan  Ainu peoples of northern Japan structurally similar to Native Americans in the US o Highly marginalized peoples  Through prolonged contact, the language has distinct Japonic features  Ainu represent a unique genetic population of Indigenous people that are distantly related to Mongoloid and New World people  Jomon culture of Japan (approx. 12,000 – 500 BCE) o Created FIRST POTTERY (S. China and E. Russia) o Genetic evidence suggests close link to modern Ainu Friday, April 15, 2016 Recap  Language extinction  what is it  Biological classification system of endangerment  Change vs. loss Australian Languages in the “51st Millennium” – Evans  Australian peoples occupied continent at least by 50,000 BCE. (mistake in text!)  Peoples remained hunter gatherers in entire history—used as social index for pre-Neolithic peoples.  Languages not documented until the 1970’s o Only the, perhaps 60 or so are properly documented in their grammars (out of 700) o Southeast languages already extinct by this time huge data loss for historical linguistics  Linguistic situation: o By 2088, almost 95% of languages will be extinct o 25 communities have over 1,000 speakers o Only 36 have more than 500 speakers Special Characteristics of Australian Languages  He focuses on Kayardild, a North Australian language with interesting case and tense structures  Clauses are also marked with a special case, and interclasual relation require further case marking  This makes this language, among with its sister, Lardil, are the only modal case system languages in the world.  Case stacking involves more and more case marking when additional clauses are used most extreme form of case marking of all languages  Noun-verb case morphology: Kyaradild example o Modal case: expresses intention, obligation, permission, possibility. o This is what Chomsky believed to be impossible through his own work on Universal Grammar!  Harmonic verbs: o Verbs in some languages express “harmony” with their constituent subjects o Harmony or disharmony involves ideas of kinship “two brothers go” vs “ father and son go” o Harmony in this case involves same generations or every other generation (grandparent to grandchild) Special Registers and Functions  Respect registers: o Used in specific instances of certain types of languages, usually mother-in-law and brother-in-law o These involves intact grammar but different words, from a few to several thousand.  Tri-relational Kinship terms: o Australian languages have a high sensitivity to family relations o These terms relate the different objects within the sentence in terms of family relations, and also the speaker’s family relation to the hearer. o “the one who is mother of one of us and mother-in-law of the other, given that we are husband and wife” o Requires speaker to take on two perspectives at once!  Initiation Registers: o Used by youths who are undergoing religious ceremonial education o Major socializing force within Australian communities o Some of these registers employ some of the most complex phonologies I the world o Use clicks and complex air streams to produce some phonemes seen nowhere else o Some use hand signs as integral parts of the syntax and to convey meaning

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Chapter 3.8, Problem 1 is Solved
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Textbook: Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modeling
Edition: 5
Author: C. Henry Edwards, David E. Penney, David T. Calvis
ISBN: 9780321796981

Since the solution to 1 from 3.8 chapter was answered, more than 247 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 58 chapters, and 2027 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 1 from chapter: 3.8 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 01/04/18, 09:22PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modeling, edition: 5. Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems: Computing and Modeling was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321796981. The answer to “The eigenvalues in 1 through 5 are all nonnegative. First determine whether D 0 is an eigenvalue; then find the positive eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions. y00 C y D 0; y0 .0/ D 0, y.1/ D 0” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 37 words.

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Solved: The eigenvalues in 1 through 5 are all