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Answer: In 15-22, plot each pair of points and determine

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780132329033 | Authors: Michael Sullivan ISBN: 9780132329033 217

Solution for problem 2.3.17 Chapter 2

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition

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Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780132329033 | Authors: Michael Sullivan

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition

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Problem 2.3.17

In 15-22, plot each pair of points and determine the slope of the line containing them. Graph the line. ( -2, 3); (2, 1)

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MGMT 3720 Organizational Behavior Study Guide Ch. 9: Foundations of Group Behavior Vocabulary  Group o Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.  Formal groups o A Designated work group defined by an organization’s structure.  Informal group o /A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contract.  Social identity theory o Perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups. o People have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because their self­esteem gets tied into the performance of the group. o Social identities help us understand who we are and where we fit in with people.  Ingroup favoritism o Perspective in which we see members of our ingroup as better than other people, and people not in our group as all the same.  Five­stage group development model o The five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.  Forming stage o The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty  Storming stage o The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict  Norming stage o The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness  Performing stage o The Fourth stage in group development, during which the group is fully functional  Adjourning stage o The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.  Punctuated­equilibrium model o A set of phases that temporary groups go through that involves transitions between inertia and activity.  Role o A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.  Role Perception o An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.  Role Expectations o How others believe a person should act in a given situation.  Psychological contract o An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from an employee and vice versa.  Role Conflict o A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.  Norms o Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members  Conformity o The adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group  Reference groups o Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with those whose norms individuals are likely to conform  Deviant Workplace behavior o Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well­being of the organization or its members. Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility. o Production, property, political, personal aggression = types of deviant workplace behavior  Status o A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others  Status characteristics theory  Differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups.  Social loafing: o The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.  Cohesiveness o The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.  Diversity o The degree to which members of the group are similar to, or different from, one another.  Faultlines o The perceived divisions that split groups into two or more subgroups based on individual differences such as sex, race, age, work experience, and education.  Groupthink o Situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views.  Groupshift o A change between a group’s decision and an individual decision that a member within the group would make; the shift can be toward either conservatism or greater risk but it generally is toward a more extreme version of the group’s original position.  Interacting groups o Typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face.  Brainstorming o An idea­generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. o In a brainstorming session:  The group leader states the problem clearly  Members then “free­wheel” as many alternatives as they can  No criticism is allowed  One idea stimulates others, and group members are encouraged to “think the unusual”  Nominal group technique o A group decision­making method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. Review Questions 1. Define group. What are the different types of groups a. Group i. Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. b. Formal groups i. A Designated work group defined by an organization’s structure. c. Informal group i. A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contract. 2. What are the five stages of group development a. Five­stage group development model i. The five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. b. Forming stage i. The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty c. Storming stage i. The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict d. Norming stage i. The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness e. Performing stage i. The Fourth stage in group development, during which the group is fully functional f. Adjourning stage i. The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance 3. Do role requirements change in different situations If so, how a. Role i. A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. b. Role Perception i. An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation. c. Role Expectations i. How others believe a person should act in a given situation. ii. Psychological contract 1. An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from an employee and vice versa. d. Role Conflict i. A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. 4. How do group norms and status influence an individual’s behavior a. Norms i. Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members ii. Performance norms iii. Appearance norms iv. Social arrangement norms v. Resource allocation norms b. Conformity i. The adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group c. Reference groups i. Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with those whose norms individuals are likely to conform d. Deviant Workplace behavior i. Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well­being of the organization or its members. Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility. ii. Production, property, political, personal aggression = types of deviant workplace behavior e. Status i. A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. ii. Status characteristics theory 1. Differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups. a. Status is derived from one of three sources: i. The power a person wields over others ii. A person’s ability to contribute a group’s goals iii. An individual’s personal characteristics. f. Status and Norms i. High status individuals often have more freedom to deviate from norms g. Status and Group interaction i. High status people are often more assertive h. Status inequity i. Perceived inequity creates disequilibrium and can lead to resentment and corrective behavior. i. Status and Stigmatization i. Stigma by association 5. How does group size affect group performance a. Group size affects the group’s overall behavior. i. Large groups are good for gaining diverse input. ii. Smaller groups are better doing something with input. b. Social loafing: i. The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. c. Synergy­ in a group, each contributing what their best at (opposite of social loafing) 6. What are the advantages and limitations of cohesive groups a. Cohesiveness i. The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group. b. 7. What are the implications of diversity for group effectiveness  Diversity o The degree to which members of the group are similar to, or different from, one another.  Diversity appears to increase group conflict, especially in the early stages of a group’s tenure, which often lowers group morale and raises dropout rates.  However if members can weather their differences, over time diversity may help them be more open­minded and creative to do better. 8. What are the strengths and weaknesses of group (versus individual) decision­making  Strengths of group decision making: o More complete information and knowledge o Increased diversity of views o Increased acceptance of solutions  Weaknesses of group decision making: o Time consuming o Conformity pressures o Dominance of a few members o Ambiguous responsibility o Groupthink  Situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. o Groupshift  A change between a group’s decision and an individual decision that a member within the group would make; the shift can be toward either conservatism or greater risk but it generally is toward a more extreme version of the group’s original position.  Group member rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they’ve made  Members apply direct pressures on those who momentarily express doubts about any of the group’s shared views  Members who have doubts or differing points of view seek to avoid deviating from what appears to be group consensus  There is an illusion of unanimity  Effectiveness and efficiency of group decisions: o Accuracy o Speed o Creativity o Acceptance 9. How effective are interacting, brainstorming, and the nominal group technique  Interacting groups o Typical groups in which members interact with each other face to face.  Brainstorming o An idea­generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. o In a brainstorming session:  The group leader states the problem clearly  Members then “free­wheel” as many alternatives as they can  No criticism is allowed  One idea stimulates others, and group members are encouraged to “think the unusual”  Nominal group technique o A group decision­making method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. o Group members are all physically present, but members operate independently o The chief advantage of the nominal group technique is that it permits a group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking, as does an interacting group. Ch. 10: Understanding Work Team Vocabulary  Work group o A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility  Work team o A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.  Problem­solving teams o Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment.  Self­managed work teams o Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisors.  Cross­functional teams o Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.  Virtual teams o Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.  Multiteam system o A collection of two or more interdependent teams that share a superordinate goal; a team of teams.  Organizational demography o The degree to which members of a work unit share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in an organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover.  Reflexivity o A team characteristic of reflecting on and adjusting the master plan when necessary  Mental models: o Team members’ knowledge and beliefs about how the work gets done by the team Review Questions: 1. How do you explain the growing popularity of teams in organizations a. To better compete, organizations are using teams. b. Teams: i. Offer a better way to use employee talents ii. Are more flexible and responsive to changing events iii. Can quickly assemble, deploy 2. What is the difference between a group and a team a. Work group i. A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility b. Work team i. A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. 3. What are the five types of teams a. Problem­solving teams i. Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. b. Self­managed work teams i. Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisors. c. Cross­functional teams i. Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. d. Virtual teams i. Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. e. Multiteam system i. A collection of two or more interdependent teams that share a superordinate goal; a team of teams. 4. What conditions or context factors determine whether teams are effective a. What factors determine whether teams are successful i. Adequate resources 1. Every work team relies on resources outside the group to sustain it. ii. Leadership and structure 1. Teams can’t function if they can’t agree on who is to do what and ensure all members share the workload iii. Climate of trust 1. Members of effective teams trust each other and their leaders iv. Performance evaluations and rewards 1. Individual performance evaluations and incentives may interfere with the development of high­performance teams. b. Team Composition: How should teams be staffed i. Abilities of members ii. Personality iii. Allocating roles iv. Diversity 1. Organizational demography a. The degree to which members of a work unit share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in an organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. v. Size of teams vi. Member preferences c. Key roles of teams i. Task: Need a leader to keep people on task ii. Social glue: person good at sponsoring cohesiveness iii. Conflicter: Devil’s advocate d. Team Processes i. Common plan and purpose ii. Reflexivity 1. A team characteristic of reflecting on and adjusting the master plan when necessary e. Mental models: i. Team members’ knowledge and beliefs about how the work gets done by the team 5. How can organizations create team players a. Creating team players i. Selecting: Hiring Team Players ii. Training: Creating Team Players iii. Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team Player 6. When is work performed by individuals preferred over work performed by teams a. Can the work be done better by more than one person i. A good indicator is the complexity of the work and the need for different perspectives b. Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals c. Determine whether the members of the group are interdependent d. Using teams makes sense when there is interdependence among tasks— the success of the whole depends on the success of each one, and the success of each one depends on the success of others. Chapter 12: Leadership Vocabulary  Leadership o The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.  Trait theories of leadership o Theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from non­leaders.  Behavioral theories of leadership o Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non­ leaders.  Initiating Structure o The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment.  Consideration: o The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regard for their feelings.  Employee­oriented leader o A leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations, takes a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accepts individual differences among members.  Production­oriented leader o A leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.  Fiedler contingency model: o The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.  Least preferred co­worker (LPC) questionnaire o An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task or relationship oriented.  Leader­member relations o The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader.  Task structure o The degree to which job assignments are procedurized.  Position power o Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.  Situational leadership theory (SLT) o A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. o Based on two levels: Attitude and aptitude  Path­goal theory o A theory that states that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.  Leader­participation model o A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations. o Leader behavior must adjust to reflect the task structure. o Model is normative­ it provides a decision tree of seven contingencies and five leadership styles for determining the form and amount of participation in decision making.  Leader­member exchange (LMX) theory o A theory that supports leaders’ creation of ingroups and outgroups; subordinates with ingroup status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.  Charismatic leadership theory o A leadership theory that states that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.  Vision o A long­term strategy for attaining a goal or goals.  Vision statement o A formal articulation of an organization’s vision or mission.  Transactional leaders o Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. o  Transformational leaders o Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self­interests and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.  Authentic leaders o Leaders who know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers would consider them to be ethical people.  Socialized charismatic leadership o A leadership concept that states that leaders convey values that are other centered versus self­centered and who role­model ethical conduct.  Servant leadership o A leadership style marked by going beyond the leader’s own self­interest and instead focusing on opportunities to help followers grow and develop.  Trust: o A positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically.  Mentor o A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less­experienced employee, called a protégé.  Attribution theory of leadership o A leadership theory that says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals.  Substitutes o Attributes, such as experience and raining, that can replace the need for a leader’s support or ability to create structure.  Neutralizers o Attributes that make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes.  Identification­based trust o Trust based on a mutual understanding of each other’s intentions and appreciation of each other’s wants and desires. Review Questions 1. Are leadership and management different form one another If so, how  Not all leaders are managers, nor are all managers leaders.  Nonsanctioned leadership is often as important or more important than formal influence.  Strong leadership and strong management are needed for optimal effectiveness.  Leaders: o Challenge the status quo. o Create visions of the future. o Inspire organizational members to want tot achieve the visions.  Managers o Formulate detailed plans. o Create efficient organizational structures. o Oversee day­to­day operations. 2. What is the difference between trait and behavioral theories Are the theories valid  Trait theories of leadership o Theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from non­leaders. o The search for personality, social, physical, or intellectual attributes that differentiate leaders from non­leaders goes back to the earliest stages of leadership research.  Conclusions based on the latest findings: o Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders. 3. What are the main limitations of behavioral theories of leadership  Initiating Structure o The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment.  Consideration: o The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regard for their feelings.  Employee­oriented leader o A leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations, takes a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accepts individual differences among members.  Production­oriented leader o A leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job. 4. What is Fielder’s contingency model Has it been supported in research  Fiedler contingency model: o The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.  Fiedler identified three contingency or situational dimensions: o Leader­member relations  The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. o Task structure  The degree to which job assignments are procedurized. o Position power  Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases. 5. How do charismatic and transformational leadership compare and contrast  Charismatic leadership theory o A leadership theory that states that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.  Key characteristics of a charismatic leader o Vision and articulation o Personal risk o Sensitivity to follower needs o Unconventional behavior  Transformational leaders o Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self­interests and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. o How Transformational Leadership Works  Creativity  Decentralization of responsibility  Propensity to take risks  Compensation is geared toward long­term results  Greater agreement among top managers about the organizaton’s goals.  Increase follower self­efficacy, giving the group a “can do” spirit. 6. What is authentic leadership Why do ethics and trust matter to leadership  Authentic leaders o Leaders who know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Their followers would consider them to be ethical people.  The result: People come to have faith in them.  Ethical Leadership o Ethics touches on leadership at a number of junctures. o Efforts have been made to combine ethical and charismatic leadership into an idea of socialized charismatic leadership  Trust: o A positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically. o A primary attribute associated with leadership o When trust is broken, it can have serious adverse effects on a group’s performance. o Trust leads to risk taking, information sharing, group effectiveness and productivity. 7. How is mentoring valuable to leadership What are the keys to effective mentoring  Mentor o A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less­experienced employee, called a protégé. o Mentors may be effective not because of the function sthey provide, but because of the resources they can obtain; a mentor connected to a powerful network can build relationships that will help the protégé advance. 8. How can organizations select and develop effective leaders  Selecting Leaders o Identifying effective leaders:  Review specific requirements for the position.  Consider personality tests to identify leadership traits.  Situation­specific experience is relevant. o Plan for a change in leadership.  Training Leaders o Leadership training is likely to be more successful with high self­ monitors. o Teach implementation skills. o Teach trust building, mentoring, and situational­analysis. o Behavioral training through modeling exercises can increase an individual’s charismatic leadership qualities. o Review leadership after key organizational events. o Train in transformational leadership skills. Ch. 13: Power and Politics Vocabulary  Power o A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.  Dependence o B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.  Coercive Power o A power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from failing to comply.  Reward Power o Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable.  Legitimate Power o The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization.  Expert power o Influence based on special skills or knowledge.  Referent Power o Influence based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits.  Power tactics: o Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions  Political skill o The ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one’s objectives.  Sexual Harassment: o Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment and creates a hostile work environment  Political Behavior o Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence the distribution of advantages within the organization.  Impression management (IM)— o The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them. Review Questions 1. What is power How is leadership different from power  Power o A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.  Contrasting Leadership and Power o Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. o Goal compatibility  Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence o The direction of influence  Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers. o Leadership research emphasizes style. 2. What are the similarities and differences among the five bases of power  Formal Power: Formal power is based on an individual’s position in an organization. It can come from the ability to coerce or reward, or from formal authority. o Coercive Power  A power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. o Reward Power  Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable. o Legitimate Power  The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization.  Personal Power: Personal power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. There are two bases of personal power: expertise and respect and admiration of others. o Expert power  Influence based on special skills or knowledge. o Referent Power  Influence based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits.  Formal power is based on an individual’s position in an organization. It can come from the ability to coerce or reward, or from formal authority.  Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective o Personal sources are most effective o Both expert and referent power are positively related to employees’ satisfaction with supervision, their organizational commitment, and their performance, whereas reward and legitimate power seem to be unrelated to these outcomes. o Coercive power usually backfires. 3. What is the role of dependence in power relationships  The General Dependency Postulate o When you possess anything that others require but that you alone control, you make them dependent upon you and, therefore, you gain power over them. o Dependence, then, is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply.  What Creates Dependence o Importance  If nobody wants what you have, it’s not going to create dependence o Scarcity  Dependence relationship in the power of occupational categories o Nonsubstitutability  The fewer viable substitutes for a resource, the more power control that resource provides 4. What are the nine most often identified power or influence tactics and their contingencies  Power tactics: o Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions   Legitimacy o Relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules.   Rational persuasion o Presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable   Inspirational appeals o Developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations.   Consultation o Increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan.   Exchange o Rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request.   Personal appeals o Asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty.   Ingratiating o Using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request.   Pressure o Using warnings, repeated demands, and threats   Coalitions o Enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agree 5. What is the connection between sexual harassment and the abuse of power  The concept of power is central to understanding sexual harassment. o Sexual harassment is more likely to occur when there are large power differentials.  Managers have a responsibility to protect their employees from a hostile work environment, but they also need to protect themselves. o Managers may be unaware of sexual harassment, but being unaware does not protect them or their organization. o If investigators believe a manger could have known about the harassment, both the manager and the company can be held liable. 6. What are the causes and consequences of political behavior  Political Behavior—activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence the distribution of advantages within the organization. o Outside of one’s specified job requirements o Encompasses efforts to influence decision­making goals, criteria, or processes. o Includes such behaviors as withholding information, whistle blowing, spreading rumors, and leaking confidential information.  Factors contributing to Political Behavior o Individual factors o Organizational factors 7. What are some examples of impression management technique  Impression management (IM)—the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them.  Examples: o Conformity o Favors o Excuses o Apologies o Self­Promotion o Enhancement o Flattery o Exemplification 8. What standards can you use to determine whether political action is ethical  Questions to consider: o What is the utility of engaging in politicking o How does the utility of engaging in the political behavior balance out any harm (or potential harm) it will do to others o Does the political activity conform to standards of equity and justice

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Textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry
Edition: 8
Author: Michael Sullivan
ISBN: 9780132329033

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Answer: In 15-22, plot each pair of points and determine