In 45-70, find an equation for the line with the given properties. Express your answer using either the general form or the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line, whichever you prefe r. Containing the points (-3 , 4) and (2, 5)
LIB – 120 – Introduction to Psychology Chapter 7: Developmental Psychology Vocabulary Accommodation: Piaget’s term for the modification of present schemas to fit with new experiences. Assimilation: Piaget’s term for the interpretation of a new experiences in terms of present schemas. Attachment: The lifelong emotional bond between infants and their mothers other caregivers, formed during the first six months of life. Authoritarian Parenting: A style of parenting in which the parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children’s desires, and communicate poorly with their children. Authoritative Parenting: A style of parenting in which the parents are demanding, but set rational limits for their children and communicate well with their children. Babbling: The rhythmic repetition of various syllables including both consonants and vowels. Baby Talk: The different format of speech that adults use when talking with babies that involves the use of shorter sentences with a higher, more melodious pitch. Centration: The tendency to focus on only one aspect of a problem at a time. Chromosomes: Molecules of DNA that hold the genetic instructions for every cell in the body. Cohort Effects: People of a given age (cohorts) are affected by factors unique to their generation, leading to differences in performance between generations. Concrete operational stage: The third stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, from age 6-12, during which children gain a fuller understanding of conservation and other mental operations that allow them to think logically, but only about concrete events. Conservation: The knowledge that the quantitative properties of objects (such as mass and number) remain the same despite the changes in appearance. Conventional level of moral reasoning: The second level of reasoning in Kohlberg’s Theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on social rules and laws. Cross-Sectional Study: A study in which the performances of groups of participants of different ages are compared to one another. Developmental Psychology: The scientific study of biological, cognitive, social, and personality development across the life span. Egocentrism: The inability to distinguish one’s own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings from those of others. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): A syndrome affecting infants whose mothers consumed large amount of alcohol during pregnancy, resulting in a range of severe effects including mental retardation and facial abnormalities. Formal Operational Stage: The last stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, starting at age 12 or so, during which a child gains the capacity for hypothetical-deductive thought. Fraternal Twins (dizygotic): Twins that originate from the fertilization of two eggs at approximately the same time (two zygotes). Gene: The basic unit of genetic instruction. Habituation: A decrease in the physiological responding to a stimulus once it becomes familiar. Holophrase: A word used by an infant to express a complete idea. Identical Twins (monozygotic): Tins that originate from the same zygote. Information-Processing approach to cognitive development: An approach to studying cognitive development that assumes cognitive development is continuous and improves as children become for adept at processing information (taking in, storing, and using information). Insecure-Ambivalent attachment: The type of attachment indicated by the infant not exploring but seeking closeness to the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure, showing high levels of distress when the mother leaves, and ambivalent behavior when she returns – by alternatively clinging to and pushing away from her. Insecure-avoidant attachment: The type of attachment indicated by the infant exploring with little in the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure, showing only minimal distress when the mother leaves and avoiding her when she returns. Insecure-disorganized (disorientated) attachment: The type of attachment indicated by the infants confusion when the mother leaves and returns in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure. The infant acts disorientate, seems overwhelmed by the situation, and does not demonstrate a consistent way of coping with it. Longitudinal Study: A study in which performance of the same group of participants is examine at different ages. Object Permanence: The knowledge that an object exists independent of perceptual contact with it. Overextension: The application of a newly learned word to objects that are not included in the meaning of the word. Permissive Parenting: A style of parenting in which the parents make few demands and are overly responsive to their children’s desires, letting their children do pretty much as they please. Peroperational Stage: The second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, from age two to 6, during which the child’s thinking becomes more symbolic and language-based, but remains egocentric and lacks the mental operations that allow logical thinking. Phonemes: The smallest distinctive speech sounds in a language. Postconventional level of moral reasoning: The last stage in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on self-chosen universal ethical principles (with humans rights taking precedence over laws) and the avoidance of self-condemnation for violating such principles. Preconventional level of moral reasoning: The first level of reasoning in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on avoiding punishment and looking out for your own welfare and needs. Reversibility: The knowledge that reversing a transformation brings about the conditions that existed before the transformation. Rooting Reflex: An innate human reflex that leads infants to turn their mouth towards anything that touches their cheeks in the search for something to suck on. Scaffolding: According to Vygotsky, a style of teaching in which the teacher adjusts the level to help in relation to the child’s level of performance while orientating the child’s learning toward the upper level of his or her zone of proximal development. Secure Attachment: The type of attachment indicated by the infant exploring freely in the presence of the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure, displaying distress when the mother leaves, and responding enthusiastically when she returns. Sensorimotor Stage: The first stage of piaget’s theory of cognitive development, from birth to about age 2, during which infants learn about the world through their sensory and motor interactions with it and develop object permanence. Sucking Reflex: An innate human reflex that leads infants to suck anything that touches their lips. Telegraphic Speech: Using two-word sentences with mainly nouns and verbs. Temperament: The set of innate tendencies or dispositions that lead a person to behave in certain ways. Teratogens: Environmental agents such as drugs and viruses, diseases, and physical conditions that impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects and sometimes death. Theory of Mind: The understanding of the mental and emotional states of both ourselves and others. Underextension: The failure to apply a new word more generally to objects that are included within the meaning of the word. Uninvolved Parenting: A style of parenting in which the parents minimize both the time they spend with their children and their emotional involvement with them and provide for their children’s basic needs, but little else. Zone of Proximal Development: According to Vygotsky, the difference between what a child can actually do and what the child can do with the help of others. Zygote: The fertilized egg that is formed from the union of the sperm and egg cells in human reproduction.