Prove that if both k and k + 1 are idempotents in Zn and k ? 0, then n = 2k.
Intro to Clinical Psychology Chapter 11 Notes Chapter 11: Constructivist Theory & Therapy 1.1Key Psychologists: Milton Erickson De Shazer (solution-caused therapy) O’Hanlon (solution-oriented therapy, possibility therapy) 1.2Narrative Therapy Psychologists Epstein & White 1.3Major theoretical assumptions: 1. Emphasis is on the subjective meaning attached to experience, rather than the objective experience a. Post modernism -> these is no objective, scientific, deterministic reality [in therapy most of what we’re talking about is NOT “TRUTH”] b. Modernism -> scientific, objective, deterministic reality c. Constructivist -> knowledge and reality are constructed within the individual (influenced by cognitive & biological processes within the individual) d. a reality (object relations, two-person) [therapy is a social constructive process] 1.4Revisionist History 2. The importance of language; language builds & maintains our world view [language determines our reality] Victim Survivors Passive strong Helpless individual empowered *patient client consumers psychiatric survivors *labels matter 1.5Presuppositional questions 3. Change is both constant & inevitable [small changes are generative] a. Positive spiral going b. Don’t go for the BIG CURE 4. Therapy is collaborative, cooperative, co-constructive conversation a. Equal relationship, partnership [Client/therapist -> help define the “problem” in a way that is solvable] *Resistance [by the client] does not exist *Client is an expert on themselves and situation 5. Therapy focuses on a. Strengths b. Solutions c. Exceptions to problems d. Optimism and self-efficacy *therapist is strictly the cheerleader *credulous approach to assessment -> ask the client & they will tell you 6. Psychopathology: problems are either -> a. (1) ineffective solutions [change the viewing & the doing] b. (2) belief in an unhealthy pathology based narrative 1.6Structure Therapy: (1) Assessment: solution open broadly and moves quickly to identifying goals or solutions a. De Shazer -> no time on problems b. O’Hanlon -> empathy with clients *Therapist/Consultant (cabdriver) -> the client knows where they want to go & the therapist knows the best route to get them there *Narrative therapist -> may want to know how the narrative was constructed Motivation (O’Hanlon) Customers for change -> eager to work in therapy Complainants -> interested in therapy because of the insistence of another Visitors to treatment -> mandated clients who are not interested in therapy (2) Therapeutic techniques: a. Pretreatment change: “what improvements have you’ve noticed between when you called for the appointment and how” b. Unique account and redescription questions i. “unique outcome,” “sparling moments” Techniques: (3) Externalization of the problem a. Objectify & identify the problem as a separate entity (4) “doing” the problem (Glasser) (5) Carl Rogers with a twist (6) Relabeling -> stubborn -> determined, lazy -> gently on myself, & Reframing -> taking skills from one context and applying them to a new one (7) Exceptions questions (8) Hypothetical solutions a. “miracle tasks” (9) Formula tasks a. First session formula b. Do something different